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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Lacey, Lawrence
item Knight, Alan
item Huber, Jurg

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/1999
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Lacey, L.A., Knight, A.L., Huber, J. 1999. Microbial control of Lepidopterous pests of apple orchards. Chapter 19 in Field Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology. p.521-545.

Interpretive Summary: Control of lepidopterous pests of apple is traditionally accomplished using conventional chemical insecticides. Development of resistance to insecticides and concerns about their effects on humans and the environment will limit the availability of chemical insecticides in the near future. Alternatives to chemical insecticides include the use of mating disruption, cultural methods and biological control. Microbial control in apple orchards is somewhat under-utilized. This chapter provides information on microbial control agents including step by step protocols for their application and evaluation. These agents will complement mating disruption and other non-conventional interventions.

Technical Abstract: Alternative interventions to conventional chemical pesticides for control of codling moth are needed for a number of environmental and practical reasons. This chapter presents an overview of microbial control agents of lepidopterous pests of apple and provides detailed protocols for the evaluation of granulosis virus of codling moth, insect-specific nematodes and the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. Various aspects of field testing that warrant consideration including plot design, preparation of inoculum, spray equipment, and parameters for determining efficacy are presented.

Last Modified: 10/17/2017
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