Location: Sustainable Perennial Crops Laboratory
Project Number: 8042-21220-258-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Mar 28, 2022
End Date: Sep 30, 2022
Objective 1: Develop genomic tools for assessing pathogen genetic diversity and determining the basis for virulence in support of improved cacao breeding. [NP303, C2, PS2A] Sub-objective 1.A. Identify the genome structure of established and emerging pathogens of cacao to determine the genetic basis for their virulence in cacao. Sub-objective 1.B. Develop and use genomic tools to characterize the regional distribution of Ceratobasidium theobromae genetic diversity. Sub-objective 1.C. Combining genotyping by sequencing and whole genome sequencing data to assess the genetic diversity of P. megakarya and evaluate the evolution/selection of virulence-associated genes. Objective 2: Identify cacao defense genes through transcriptome analysis, and develop tools to exploit these genes for the improvement of cacao breeding. [NP303, C2, PS2A] Sub-objective 2.A. Identify the cacao defense gene complement by assessing changes in gene expression of elite cacao clones responding to infections by diverse pathogens. Sub-objective 2.B. Identify components of the cacao defense transcriptome with potential for providing durable tolerance against infections by diverse pathogens.
Diseases caused by Moniliophthora roreri, Phytophthora megakarya, Ceratobasidium theobromae, and Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus reduce cacao yields, impacting farmers’ profits, and increase the costs of chocolate products. Emerging pathogens such as Marasmiellus scandens and Lasiodiplodia theobromae further threaten cacao production. While progress is being made in breeding tolerance to some cacao diseases, these efforts are hindered by an undefined pathogen genetic diversity and a limited understanding of cacao genes that confer disease tolerance. Therefore, this project will develop tools including pathogen genome and transcriptome sequences and associated single-nucleotide polymorphism panels characterizing pathogens and their variants pertinent to breeding programs and an annotated cacao transcriptome database identifying cacao genes linked to disease tolerance. The genome and transcriptome sequences of established and emerging cacao pathogens will be acquired and their genetic diversity will be determined. We will also characterize the expression of the cacao transcriptome during interactions between five cacao pathogens and eight genetically diverse clones. Using advanced mathematic approaches, we will identify differences and commonalities in the cacao responses associated with tolerance to pathogens. The most common traits associated with tolerance to cacao diseases relate to polyphenol biosynthesis and cell wall development. Gene expression and other measures associated with these specific traits will be evaluated during cacao developmental processes in leaves and pods and during the disease interactions previously mentioned. Once incorporated into an annotated cacao transcriptome database, these data along with gene sequence variations will provide new markers to help accelerate cacao breeding and increase the likelihood of obtaining sustainable disease tolerance.