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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Research Project #436804

Research Project: Modification of Diurnal Patterns to Promote Health in Models for Human Metabolic Dysfunction

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Project Number: 3062-51000-056-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Jul 25, 2019
End Date: Mar 24, 2024

Objective 1 - Define how dietary fatty acids and exercise alter peripheral biological rhythms and metabolic dysfunction. • Subobjective 1.A. Define whether long-chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids correct the obesity-mediated peripheral circadian clock dysfunction. • Subobjective 1.B. Define the extent to which exercise overrides peripheral clock dysfunction and metabolic dysfunction. Objective 2 - Define the impact of diet timing on colonic bile acid pathways and inflammation. Objective 3 - Define the impact of dietary fiber composition on colonic bile acid pathways and inflammation. Objective 4 - Define the mechanisms and the influence of daily physical activity timing to improve bone health. • Subobjective 4.A. Determine the mechanisms through which the timing of exercise alters the diurnal pattern of bone turnover, bone cell physiology, calcium utilization, and bone structure. • Subobjective 4.B. Determine the efficacy of morning vs evening exercise to maximize bone anabolic effects.

Disruption of biological rhythms in peripheral organs by environmental cues leads to metabolic dysfunction and disorders, including obesity. Food and physical exercise can drive the biological rhythms in peripheral organs. This project will examine the ability of dietary components (dietary fatty acids and fiber), exercise, and the timing of food consumption and exercise to correct the disrupted biological rhythms in peripheral organs and restore metabolic homeostasis. This project will address three questions: (1) Do changes in dietary fatty acid composition and exercise override the disrupted peripheral biological rhythms and restore metabolic homeostasis? (2) Does the timing of food intake and dietary fiber composition regulate bile acid pathways and attenuate colonic inflammation? (3) Does the timing of physical exercise make differences in regulating the diurnal pattern of bone metabolism and improving bone formation? Rodent studies will be performed to address each of these questions. In addition, a human clinical trial will be performed to translate question 3 results to humans. This project takes innovative approaches to addressing these questions in the context of modifying the diurnal patterns to promote health. Results from this research will provide valuable information of how dietary fatty acids and exercise minimize metabolic dysfunction and prevent associated disorders, a greater understanding of food timing and dietary fiber in regulating bile acid pathways and informing guidance for reducing colonic inflammation, and a greater understanding of timing of exercise training in improving bone health, particularly to people with bone loss associated with advancing age.