Title: Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium1 Authors
|Faber, T -|
|Dilger, R -|
|Iakiviak, M -|
|Hopkins, A -|
|Fabey, JR., G -|
Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 22, 2012
Publication Date: May 1, 2012
Citation: Faber, T.A., Dilger, R.N., Iakiviak, M., Hopkins, A.C., Price, N.P., Fabey, Jr., G.C. 2012. The effects of a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina. Poultry Science. 91:1089-1096. Interpretive Summary: Salmonella infections in chickens are one of the major causes of food-borne illness in the United States, with an estimated one million reported cases per year. We have previously shown that a complex carbohydrate is well fermented in chicks. Also, in chicks infected with Coccidia supplementing with this complex carbohydrate resulted in a favorable increase in the innate immune response. We found that the dietary supplementation resulted in prebiotic-like effects, but did not limit Salmonella colonization of the intestine or shedding. However, the results do show a possible decrease in the virulence of the Salmonella within the digestive tract of the broiler chicks. This work is expected to be of value to U.S. poultry farmers, and to the U.S. poultry and specialist carbohydrate businesses.
Technical Abstract: Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonella typhimurium (ST)- infected chicks. Using a completely randomized design, one day old commercial broiler chicks (n=240; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments differing in concentration of GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) or containing 2% Safmannan (Saf) or 2% short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS). Cellulose was used to make diets iso-total dietary fiber (TDF). On d 10 post-hatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either phosphate buffered saline (sham control) or ST (1x10**8 CFU). All birds were euthanized on d 10 post-inoculation (PI) for collection of intestinal contents and select tissues. Overall, body weight gain and feed intake of chicks was greater (P < 0.05) in infected chicks PI, except for weight gain on d 0-3 PI. Gain: feed was affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with Saf-fed chicks having the highest G:F and 1% GGMO-AX-fed chicks having the lowest. The GGMO-AX substrate demonstrated prebiotic-like effects as indicated by increased cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, particularly butyrate, decreased cecal pH, and increased populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. as dietary GGMO-AX concentration increased. Excreta ST populations on d 5 and 10 PI, and ileal and cecal ST populations, tended to be affected (P < 0.10) by diet. Messenger RNA expression of IFN-y in the cecal tonsils was the only cytokine independently affected by infection and diet (P < 0.01). An infection by linear response to GGMO-AX inclusion affected (P = 0.03) IFN-y, IL-1ß, and IL-10 expression. Chicks fed 2 and 4% GGMO-AX had similar expressions of IFN-y and IL-1ß, regardless of infection, suggesting that ST virulence was suppressed. Dietary supplementation with GGMO-AX resulted in prebiotic-like effects, but did not limit ST intestinal colonization or shedding, but possibly decreased the virulence of the ST within the digestive tract.