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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Safety of Acidified Foods
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Fred Breidt, Ph.D.


322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624
Dept. Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences

Tel: 919-513-0186
Fax: 919-513-0180


Data for process filings, thermally processed acidified foods:

Breidt F, Kay K, Osborne J, Ingham B., Arritt, F. 2014. Thermal processing of acidified foods with pH 4.1 to 4.6. Food Prot Trends 34(3):132-138.

Breidt F, Sandeep KP, Arritt F. 2010. Use of linear models for thermal processing acidified foods. Food Prot Trends 30(5):268-272.  (pdf format)

Breidt F Jr, Hayes JS, Osborne JA, McFeeters RF. 2005. Determination of 5-log pathogen reduction times for heat-processed, acidified vegetable brines. J Food Prot 68(2):305-310. (pdf format)


Data for process filings, cold filled acidified foods:

Breidt F, Kay K, Cook J, Osborne J, Ingham B, Arritt F. 2013. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8. J Food Prot 76(7):1245-1249. (pdf format).

Lu HJ, Breidt F, Pérez-Díaz, IM. 2013. Development of an effective treatment for a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli in refrigerated pickle products. J Food Sci 78(2):M264-M269. (pdf format

Breidt F, Hayes JS, McFeeters RF. 2007. Determination of 5-log Reduction Times for Food Pathogens in Acidified Cucumbers During Storage at 10 and 25°C. J Food Prot 70(11):2638-2641. (pdf format)


Data for the safety of fermented vegetable processes:

Breidt F, Caldwell JM. 2011. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cucumber fermentation brines. J Food Sci 76(3):M198-M203. (pdf format)


Other research and publications related to the safety of acidified foods:
Lu HJ, Breidt F, Pérez-Díaz IM, Osborne JA. 2011. The antimicrobial effects of weak acids on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under anaerobic conditions. J Food Prot 6:893-898. (pdf format)
Hosein AM, Breidt F, Smith CE. 2011. Modeling the effects of sodium chloride, acetic acid and intracellular pH on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77(3):889-895. (pdf format)

Pan Y, Breidt F, Gorski LA. 2010. Synergistic effects of sodium chloride, Glucose, and temperature on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a  and 4b strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 76(5):1433-1441. (pdf format)

Oh D-H, Pan Y, Berry E , Cooley M, Mandrell R, Breidt F Jr. 2009. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from environmental sources differ significantly in acetic acid resistance compared with human outbreak strains. J Food Prot 72(3):503-509. (pdf format)

Kreske AC, Bjornsdottir K, Breidt F, Hassan H. 2008. Effects of pH, dissolved oxygen, and ionic strength on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic acid solutions. J Food Prot 71(12):2404-2409. (pdf format)

Dougherty DP, Ramos Da Conceicao Neta E, McFeeters RF, Lubkin SR, Breidt F Jr. 2006. Semi-mechanistic partial buffer approach to modeling pH, the buffer properties, and the distribution of ionic species in complex solutions. J Agric Food Chem 54:6021-6029. (pdf format)

Bjornsdottir K, Breidt F Jr, McFeeters RF. 2006. Protective effects of organic acids on survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in acidic environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):660-664. (pdf format)

Breidt F Jr. 2006. Safety of minimally processed, acidified and fermented vegetable products. In: Sapers GM, Gorny JR, Yousef AE, editors. Microbiology of Fruits and Vegetables. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. p 313-335. (pdf format)

Reina LD, Breidt F Jr, Fleming HP, Kathariou S. 2006. Isolation and selection of lactic acid bacteria as biocontrol agents for minimally processed vegetables. J Food Sci 70(1):M7-M11. (pdf format )

Breidt F Jr, Costilow RN. 2004. Processing and safety. In: Fleming HP, Costilow RN, editors. Acidified Foods: Principles of Handling and Preservation. St. Charles, IL: Pickle Packers International, Inc. p 5-1 to 5-15. (pdf format)

Breidt F Jr, Hayes JS, McFeeters RF. 2004. Independent effects of acetic acid and pH on survival of Escherichia coli in simulated acidified pickle products. J Food Prot 67(1):12-18. (pdf format)


Listeria biofilm research:

Pan Y, Breidt F, Kathariou S. 2009. Competition of Listeria Monocytogenes serotype 1/2a and 4b strains in mixed culture biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(18):5846-5852. (pdf format)

Pan Y, Breidt F. 2007. Enumeration of viable Listeria monocytogenes cells by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide and ethidium monoazide in the presence of dead cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(24):8028-8031. (pdf format)

Pan Y, Breidt F Jr, Kathariou S. 2006. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms to sanitizing agents in a simulated food processing environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(12):7711-7717. (pdf format)

Last Modified: 10/16/2015
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