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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Corvallis, Oregon » National Clonal Germplasm Repository » Research » Research Project #434229

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository

Project Number: 2072-21000-049-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Feb 13, 2018
End Date: Feb 12, 2023

Objective:
1: Efficiently & effectively acquire priority temperate-adapted fruit, nut, & other specialty crop genetic resources; maintain their safety, genetic integrity, health & viability; & distribute them & associated information worldwide. 1A Research heritage cultivars to broaden knowledge of the historical cultivar base. Analyze NCGR-Corvallis crop wild relative collections for gaps in taxa, localities, & diversity. 1B Acquire international & domestic germplasm samples of Corylus, Fragaria, Humulus, Pyrus, Mentha, Ribes, Rubus, Vaccinium, & their crop wild relatives via plant exploration & exchange. Fill gaps, & as opportunities arise through country agreements, acquire elite/enhanced breeding lines & heritage cultivars. 1C Efficiently & effectively establish & maintain crop genetic resources emphasizing temperate fruit, nut, & specialty crop germplasm. Identify duplication & eliminate unnecessary redundancy to maximize efficient germplasm management. 1D Distribute germplasm during the appropriate season for each crop to national & international researchers at public & private institutions & to educational groups. 2: Develop more effective genetic resource maintenance, backup, pathogen testing, & pathogen-elimination methods & apply them to priority temperate-adapted fruit, nut, & other specialty crop genetic resources. 2A Develop improved methods for conservation of temperate crop germplasm in field plantings & container production in protected environments; particularly examining pruning, media, irrigation & integrated pest management. 2B Collaborate with scientists at remote locations to improve backup conservation methods for our 8 primary genera, including growing plants in field plantings, tissue culture storage, & long term cryopreservation. 2C Apply bioassay, ELISA, & develop improved RT-PCR tests for important viruses, viroids, & phytoplasmas in primary plant collections. 2D Eliminate pathogens from select accessions with improved methods for heat therapy & meristem culture. 3: With other NPGS genebanks & Crop Germplasm Committees, develop, update, document, & implement best management practices & Crop Vulnerability Statements for priority temperate-adapted fruit, nut, & other specialty crop genetic resource & information management. 4: Develop more effective genetic resource characterization & evaluation methods, & apply them to priority temperate-adapted fruit, nut, & other specialty crop genetic resources. Record & disseminate characterization & evaluation data via GRIN-Global & other data sources. 4A Establish baseline genetic profiles for core collections with existing DNA fingerprinting sets & develop or optimize fingerprinting sets & enter information to databases. 4B Implement new high throughput genotyping systems in genetic diversity assessment (Fragaria, Pyrus), linkage & trait mapping (Rubus, Fragaria & Pyrus) and phylogenetic analysis (Rubus) & enter information to databases. 4C Develop & apply DNA tests that help identify phenotypes or useful horticultural traits for Fragaria, Rubus & Pyrus. 4D Evaluate phenotypes of flowering, ploidy, disease resistances, & upload data & image characterization to GRIN-Global.

Approach:
Objective 1: Acquire, maintain, and distribute germplasm The NCGR-Corvallis is responsible for temperate fruit, nut, and specialty crop genera: Corylus, Fragaria, Humulus, Mentha, Pyrus, Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium, as primary collections, and Actinidia and Juglans (J. cinerea) as security backup for other genebanks. Limited amounts of crop wild relative reference collections are also preserved. Primary collections are maintained in greenhouses, screenhouses, field, and as seed. Wild species are maintained as seed stored at -18 C, with some living plant representatives. Heritage cultivars and selections are maintained as clones. Gaps in the collections are determined by research using botanical and horticultural references and species analysis software, as well as referrals through scientific colleagues. New accessions are obtained through plant exploration and exchange. When new accessions are received, information is entered to GRIN-Global and the plant is propagated. Identity is checked by morphology. Orders are received through GRIN-Global and processed in the appropriate season for the crop and plant form, according to requestor needs. Phytosanitary certification is obtained and materials are distributed according to international, regional, and local plant importation regulations. Objective 2: Improved maintenance, secure backup Inventory locations are maintained in GRIN-Global. Clones are re-propagated according to crop to maintain vigor. Pathogen status is evaluated and recorded. Core collections are established and maintained in tissue culture (for backup and distribution); protocols for cryopreservation of dormant buds of the woody plants are being established. Backup greenhouse collections are maintained for the pear and pear relative field collections. Alternative backup procedures and remote backup locations are arranged and recorded. Coordination of in situ conservation of native US germplasm is continuing with other agencies. Objective 3: Vulnerability statements and operations manual Are prepared by the curator in collaboration with the Crop Germplasm Committees. Statements for the currants, gooseberries, mint, hops, and pears will be completed. Statements for strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, have been completed and will be annually updated. Statements are reviewed and revised by expert committees. Approved statements are uploaded to GRIN-Global. The operations manual for the unit will be updated. Objective 4: Characterization and evaluation Cultivar identification will be expanded with new markers and sequencing techniques. Identity of genotypes is being compared globally with clones in other genebanks. Phenotypes of accessions are being evaluated and linked with genotypes. Linkage maps and QTL association are being used for the development of marker-based tests for germplasm characterization traits of crops in the NCGR collection.