Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Characterizing and Managing Animal Stress/Well-Being in Livestock Production Title: Heat and moisture production of modern swine

Authors
item Brown Brandl, Tami
item Hayes, Morgan
item Xin, Hongwei -
item Nienaber, John -
item Li, Hong -
item Eigenberg, Roger
item Stinn, John -
item Shepherd, Timothy -

Submitted to: Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 12, 2014
Publication Date: June 16, 2014
Citation: Brown-Brandl, T.M., Hayes, M., Xin, H., Nienaber, J.A., Li, H., Eigenberg, R.A., Stinn, J.P., Shepherd, T.A. 2014. Heat and moisture production of modern swine. Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 120(1):469-489.

Interpretive Summary: Heat and moisture production are critical information for sizing ventilation equipment like heaters and fans. Those values were adopted as standards for swine production buildings by several professional organizations. However, the original standards were based on measurements that were made 30 to 50 years ago. Modern swine, which are more lean, and modern feeding programs have caused changes in both heat and moisture production of swine. A series of 10 studies were conducted to measure heat and moisture production of the animals and facilities. Studies were completed at temperatures ranging from normal to hot conditions. Generally, it was found the heat production and feed intake decreased and moisture production increased as temperature increases. Overall, HP was found to be 16% higher than current standards, the largest differences were in finishing pigs. In addition, there are now heat and moisture production estimates in gestating gilts and farrowing sows.

Technical Abstract: The heat and moisture production (HP and MP) values that are currently published in the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards are from data collected in either the 1970’s (nursery piglets) or the 1950’s (growing-finishing pigs). This series of studies, conducted to systematically update the HP and MP standards, includes a series of 4 calorimetry studies (nursery, growing finishing gilts, and finishing barrows), and 6 facility level studies (nursery, growing, early finishing, late finishing, gestating gilts, and farrowing sows and litters). The studies were completed at various temperatures from thermal neutral to hot conditions, demonstrating the trends that HP decreased, feed intake decreased, and MP increased as environmental temperature increased. Overall, HP was found to be 16% higher than current standards. In order to predict MP from the entire facility rather than just the animals, the waste handling systems, sprinkle cooling systems, and non-vented gas-fired heaters were monitored and found to contribute significantly to the overall MP. Circadian measurements showed a diurnal HP pattern that was higher during light than dark periods, with peaks just after lights came on and just before lights went off. These HP and MP values will be useful in designing and managing current swine facilities.

Last Modified: 12/19/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page