|Memon, Ayaz -|
|Memon, Najma -|
|Bhanger, Muhammad -|
Submitted to: Journal of Functional Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 23, 2013
Publication Date: July 1, 2013
Citation: Memon, A.A., Memon, N., Bhanger, M.I., Luthria, D.L. 2013. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids. Journal of Functional Foods. 139:496-502. Interpretive Summary: Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed forms in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study we investigated the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and compared various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. Twelve flavanoids and three major phenolic acids were identified, nine of the flavanoids for the first time. Three methods were compared for the extraction of the phenols. Pressurized liquid assisted base hydrolysis provided the highest yields, as compared to microwave or ultrasonic assisted hydrolysis. This report establishes the phenolic content of ber fruit and information for their optimized extraction.
Technical Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin triglycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruit. Impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurized liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids were compared. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (p < 0.05) of total phenolic acids in all cultivars were obtained with PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH).