BIOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, AND MOLECULAR GENETICS OF ROOT DISEASES OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND BIOFUELS BRASSICAS
Location: Root Disease and Biological Control Research
Title: Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions
Submitted to: Barley: Improvement, Production, and Uses
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 20, 2011
Publication Date: April 20, 2011
Citation: Paulitz, T.C., Steffenson, B.J. 2011. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions. In: Ullrich, S.E., editor. Barley: improvement, production, and uses. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 307-354.
Interpretive Summary: In this review, we cover the following foliar diseases: Fusarium head blight, stem rust, leaf rust, stripe rust, powdery mildew, net blotch, spot blotch, Ramularia leaf spot, scald, Septoria diseases, barley yellow dwarf, and bacterial blight. The following soilborne pathogens are covered: Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot, Pythium root rot, common root rot, take-all, cereal cyst nematode, and root lesion nematode. Management options are also discussed.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a
wider geographic range than almost any other
major crop species. It can be found growing from
the tropics to the high latitudes and from the
seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On
marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or
cold summer temperatures occur, barley can outproduce
most other cereal crops (Mathre 1997).
Over such a wide range of growing environments,
it is not surprising that barley will encounter different
plant pathogens and succumb to various
diseases. Considering the hundreds of thousands
of potential plant pathogenic microorganisms that
exist in the world, resistance is the rule and susceptibility
the exception in the plant world. Such
is also the case with barley as just over 125 pathogens
have been reported on the crop or its products
in the United States (Farr et al. 1989).
Mathre (1997) lists about 80 different diseases
caused by infectious agents in his Compendium of
Barley Diseases, but of this number, only a handful
consistently cause widespread economic loss on
an annual basis.