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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF GRASSHOPPERS AND OTHER INSECT PESTS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

Location: Pest Management Research Unit

Title: Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

Authors
item Tscharntke, Teja -
item Tylianakis, Jason -
item RAND, TATYANA
item Didham, Raphael -
item Fahrig, Lenore -
item Batary, Peter -
item Bengtsson, Janne -
item Clough, Yann -
item Crist, Thomas -
item Dormann, Carsten -

Submitted to: Biological Reviews
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 14, 2011
Publication Date: August 1, 2012
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/54279
Citation: Tscharntke, T., Tylianakis, J.M., Rand, T.A., Didham, R.K., Fahrig, L., Batary, P., Bengtsson, J., Clough, Y., Crist, T.O., Dormann, C.F. 2012. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. Biological Reviews. 87(3): 661-685. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00216.x.

Interpretive Summary: Understanding how landscape characteristics (i.e. the pattern and composition of habitats in the landscapes surrounding a local habitat) affect local biodiversity patterns and ecological processes is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest the following seven hypotheses, which we hope will encourage a systematic research approach on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. (1) The dominance of beta diversity hypothesis: dissimilarity of local communities across the landscape determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. (2) The landscape species pool hypothesis: local biodiversity is influenced predominantly by the size of the landscape-wide pool of species. (3) The intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis: effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes (e.i. those with a high proportion of natural habitats). (4) The landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis: landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. rapid return of a system to its original state post disturbance, and stability of patterns and processes in changing environments. (5) The cross-habitat spillover hypothesis: spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes. (6) The landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis: spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations and the intensity of associated interactions (i.e. pollination and biological control). (7) The landscape-moderated trait and functional-group selection hypothesis: landscape structure drives the selection of particular species traits and functional groups, shaping the trajectory of community assembly. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.

Technical Abstract: Understanding how landscape characteristics affect local biodiversity patterns and ecological processes is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest the following seven hypotheses, which we hope will encourage a systematic research approach on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. (1) The dominance of beta diversity hypothesis: dissimilarity of local communities across the landscape determines the landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. (2) The landscape species pool hypothesis: local biodiversity is influenced predominantly by the size of the landscape-wide species pool. (3) The intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis: effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes. (4) The landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis: landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of patterns and processes in changing environments. (5) The cross-habitat spillover hypothesis: spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes. (6) The landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis: spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations and functional effects. (7) The landscape-moderated trait and functional-group selection hypothesis: landscape structure drives the selection of particular species traits and functional groups, shaping the trajectory of community assembly. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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