|Wilkes, Samuel -|
|Rogers, Theodore -|
|Khanal, Ramesh -|
|Wu, Xianli -|
|Howard, Luke -|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 27, 2010
Publication Date: February 11, 2010
Citation: Prior, R.L., Wilkes, S., Rogers, T., Khanal, R., Wu, X., Howard, L. 2010. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(7):3970-3976. Interpretive Summary: Obesity is recognized as a major health issue in the U.S. and other developed countries. Diet is one component of a multitude of complex factors that can impact this problem. The recent finding that anthocyanins can alter the development of obesity, at least in animal models, has provided a basis for studying effects of berry anthocyanins. The purpose of this study was to develop an explanation for the lack of anti-obesity effect of the whole berry relative to the purified anthocyanins that have been effective in preventing obesity. Consumption of blueberry juice as well as purified blueberry anthocyanins was effective in preventing obesity in a mouse model of obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the lack of response of whole blueberry powder in preventing the development of obesity.
Technical Abstract: Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed a control low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat)(C-LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat)(HF45) for a period of 72 days. Dietary treatments included: 1) C-LF; 2) C-LF + blueberry juice in place of drinking water; 3) C-LF + anthocyanins in the drinking water (0.2 mg/ml); 4) Control HF45 diet; 5) HF45 diet + blueberry juice in place of drinking water; 6) HF45 diet + anthocyanins in drinking water (0.2 mg/ml); 7) HF45 diet + sucrose in drinking water at a level calculated to be equivalent to the sugars in the blueberry juice (88 mg/mL); 8) HF45 + anthocyanins in drinking water (1.0 mg/ml); and 9) HF45 diet containing 10% freeze-dried whole blueberry powder. Total body weights (g) and body fat (%) were higher and body lean tissue (%) was lower in the HF45 fed mice compared to the C-LF mice after 72 days, but in mice fed blueberry juice or blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL), body fat (%) was not different from those mice fed the C-LF diet. Fasting serum glucose concentrations increased in mice fed the HF45 diet and decreased to C-LF levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus 0.2 mg ACNs/mL in the drinking water but not with blueberry juice. Beta cell function as assessed by the HOMA-BCF score was decreased with HF45 feeding but was returned to normal levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus purified anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL). Serum leptin was elevated in mice fed the HF45 diet and feeding either blueberry juice or purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL) decreased serum leptin levels relative to the HF45 control. Sucrose in the drinking water where consumption was restricted to the volume of juice consumed produced lower serum leptin and insulin levels, leptin/fat, and retroperitoneal and total fat (% BW). Whole blueberry powder in the diet was not effective in altering parameters measured relative to development of obesity except for a lowered serum leptin level relative to the control HF45 diet. Likewise, the higher dose of ACNs (1 mg/mL) in the water was not effective in decreasing the development of obesity. The low dose of purified anthocyanins in the drinking water was more effective than blueberry juice in preventing obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the lack of response of whole blueberry powder in preventing the development of obesity.