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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE PASTURES AND SILVOPASTURES FOR SMALL FARM LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION Title: Tools for managing internal parasites in small ruminants: Copper wire particles

Authors
item Hale, Margo - NCAT
item Burke, Joan
item Miller, Jim - LOUISIANA STATE UNIV
item Terrill, Tom - FORT VALLEY STATE UNIV

Submitted to: World Wide Web
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: October 16, 2007
Publication Date: October 26, 2007
Citation: Hale, M., Burke, J.M., Miller, J.E., Terrill, T. Tools for managing internal parasites in small ruminants: Copper wire particles. .

Interpretive Summary: Internal parasite management, especially of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm, stomach worm), is a primary concern for the majority of sheep and goat producers. These parasites have become more difficult to manage because of developed resistance to nearly all available dewormers. A severe infection of barber pole worm causes anemia, reduced animal production, bottle jaw, and-if not treated-death of infected sheep and goats. Mature parasites breed inside the host and "lay eggs," which pass through the host and are shed in the feces. After the eggs pass out of the host, they hatch into larvae in the pellet. Warm, moist conditions encourage hatching of the eggs and development into infective larvae. The larvae need moisture, such as dew or rain, to break open the fecal pellet, releasing the larvae. The infective larvae migrate out of the feces and up blades of grass (usually 1 to 3 inches). When an animal (sheep or goat) grazes, it may take in parasite larvae along with the grass blade, resulting in infection. Numbers of infective larvae on the pasture increase over time when environmental conditions are favorable (warm, wet).

Technical Abstract: Internal parasite management, especially of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm, stomach worm), is a primary concern for the majority of sheep and goat producers. These parasites have become more difficult to manage because of developed resistance to nearly all available dewormers. A severe infection of barber pole worm causes anemia, reduced animal production, bottle jaw, and-if not treated-death of infected sheep and goats. Mature parasites breed inside the host and "lay eggs," which pass through the host and are shed in the feces. After the eggs pass out of the host, they hatch into larvae in the pellet. Warm, moist conditions encourage hatching of the eggs and development into infective larvae. The larvae need moisture, such as dew or rain, to break open the fecal pellet, releasing the larvae. The infective larvae migrate out of the feces and up blades of grass (usually 1 to 3 inches). When an animal (sheep or goat) grazes, it may take in parasite larvae along with the grass blade, resulting in infection. Numbers of infective larvae on the pasture increase over time when environmental conditions are favorable (warm, wet).

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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