Submitted to: Plant Genetic Resources
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 17, 2004
Publication Date: April 30, 2004
Citation: Morris, C.F., Garland Campbell, K.A., King, G.E. 2004. Characterization of the end-use quality of soft wheat cultivars from the eastern and western u.s. germ plasm pools. Plant Genetic Resources. 2:59-69. Interpretive Summary: The two U.S. soft wheat germ plasm pools (one east and one west of the Mississippi river) produce varieties of soft wheat that are very different with regard to milling and baking quality. Extensive testing of 30 U.S. soft wheat varieties over a 3-year period in Washington state has proven that by identifying germ plasm with superior quality traits, soft wheat varieties could be enhanced. Testing consisted of milling score, rating flour yield and flour ash, mixograph dough score, and measurement of cookie diameter. Results were indicative of the differences and the opportunity for an "inter-pool" exchange of genetic resources.
Technical Abstract: Soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement could be enhanced by the identification of germ plasm with superior end-use quality traits. Due to the geographic and historical separation of eastern and western U.S. soft wheat germ plasm ‘pools,' genetic differences in end- use quality may exist among cultivars arising from these two pools. To identify such differences, 30 U.S. soft wheat cultivars were evaluated in "head-to-head" trials over three years in Washington state. Cultivars were classified as: eastern soft red winter (SRW), eastern soft white winter (ESWW), western soft white (WSWW), and western Club. These four soft wheat cultivar Classifications clearly differed systematically for some of the quality traits examined. The Club wheat cultivar group had the highest flour yield and flour ash. The Club group also had the lowest mixograph dough water absorption. Milling score (which incorporates break flour yield) was highest for Club and ESWW. Eastern soft red and white wheat cultivar groups had lower flour ash and alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) compared to the western Club and soft white wheats; ESWW had the lowest AWRC of any Classification. Cookie diameter was greatest for the ESWW group, followed by the SRW and Club groups (which were not significantly different), and then by the WSWW group. Individual cultivars with exceptional quality traits were also identified. These results indicate that the four U.S. soft wheat germ plasm pools differ, and they may be valuable genetic resources for "inter-pool" wheat improvement.