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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Methyl Bromide Alternatives in Tobacco, Tomato, and Pepper Transplant Production.

Authors
item Csinos, A - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Sumner, D - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Johnson, Wiley
item Johnson, Alva
item Mcpherson, R - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Dowler, Clyde

Submitted to: Crop Protection Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 18, 1999
Publication Date: February 1, 2000
Citation: Csinos, A.S., Sumner, D.R., Johnson, W.C., Johnson, A.W., McPherson, R.M., Dowler, C.C. 2000. Methyl bromide alternatives in tobacco, tomato, and pepper transplant production. Crop Protection. 19:39-49.

Interpretive Summary: Research was conducted from 1995 to 1997 to further refine uses of previously identified alternatives to methyl bromide for plant-bed fumigation. Metam sodium, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), 1,3-D plus 17% chloropicrin (1,3-D+C-17) and 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin (1,3-D+C-35) were evaluated alone and together under a polyethylene cover as alternatives to methyl bromide in tobacco, tomato and pepper transplant production. Control of 14 different weed species, 10 species of fungi, two arthropods, and four species of nematodes were evaluated at three different sites. All of the fumigants successfully controlled some of the pests. However, metam sodium alone and in combination with 1,3-D+C-17, chloropicrin, and 1,3-D+C-35 were the most efficacious. Seventy-nine different parameters were measured over the 2-year period including plant stand, vigor, plant height, and control of weeds, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes. Metam sodium and methyl bromide plus 2% chloropicrin (MBrC) were not different from each other in 76 of the 79 parameters evaluated. MBrC was more effective than metam sodium in only three of the 79 parameters. The combination of metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 was not different from MBrC for 74 of the 79 parameters tested. MBrC was more efficacious than metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 for two of the 79 parameters and metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 was more effective than MBrC for three of 79 parameters. These results show that metam sodium, either alone or in combination with chloropicrin and/or 1,3-D are acceptable alternatives to methyl bromide for broad-spectrum pest control in plant beds. These alternatives cost less and can be applied with conventional equipment.

Technical Abstract: Metam sodium, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), 1,3-D plus 17% chloropicrin (1,3-D+C-17) and 1,3-D plus 35% chloropicrin (1,3-D+C-35) were evaluated alone and together under a polyethylene cover as alternatives to methyl bromide in tobacco, tomao and pepper transplant production. Control of 14 different weed species, 10 species of fungi, two arthropods, and four rspecies of nematodes were evaluated at three different sites. All of the fumigants successfully controlled some of the pests. However, metam sodium alone and in combination with 1,3-D+C-17, chloropicrin, and 1,3-D+C-35 were the most efficacious. Seventy-nine different parameters were measured over the 2-year period including plant stand, vigor, plant height, and control of weeds, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes. Metam sodium and methyl bromide plus 2% chloropicrin (MBrC) were not significantly (P<0.05) different from each other in 76 of the 79 parameters evaluated. MBrC was significantly better than metam sodium only three of the 79 parameters. The combination of metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 was not significantly different from MBrC for 74 of the 79 parameters tested. MBrC was more efficacious than metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 for two of the 79 parameters and metam sodium plus 1,3-D+C-17 was significantly better (P<0.05) than MBrC for three of 79 parameters.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014
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