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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Tillage and Residue. I. Effects on Surface Soil Temperature in Dryland Wheat-Fallow Systems

item McMaster, Gregory
item Erskine, Robert
item Palic, Daniel
item Aiken, Robert
item Dunn, Gale

Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 1995
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: Soil management practices can alter soil surface temperature, which may alter crop development and growth. Crop responses to soil management practices were studied using a split plot design with conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) being the maint plot and three residue cover levels being split; no residue (0R), normal residue, and twice-normal residue. Soil temperatures were monitored at 2.5 cm depth, with resulting emergence, phenology, development, and growth recorded. Soil water and climatice data also were collected. Differences among treatments occurred in surface soil temperatures. Residue and NT buffered temperature changes as the extreme temperatures were observed in CT with 0R. Also, higher temperatures were maintained in cropped than fallow treatments. Residue and NT were beneficial for maintaining soil temperature and water levels for earlier and more uniform seedling emergence, especially in years with low rainfall near planting. This resulted in faster plant development and greater biomass and yield under conservation tillage systems. New relationships between temperature and development were established based on soil, rather than air, temperature until jointing.

Last Modified: 4/21/2015