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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BIOAVAILABILITY AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF PHYTONUTRIENTS

Location: Food Components and Health Laboratory

Title: Anthocyanin kinetics are dependent on anthocyanin structure

Authors
item Novotny, Janet
item Clevidence, Beverly
item Kurilich, Anne

Submitted to: British Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 9, 2011
Publication Date: September 28, 2011
Citation: Novotny Dura, J., Clevidence, B.A., Kurilich, A.C. 2011. Anthocyanin kinetics are dependent on anthocyanin structure. British Journal of Nutrition. 107:504-509.

Interpretive Summary: Anthocyanins are red, purple, and blue pigments found throughout nature. Consumption of diets high in anthocyanins are associated with many health benefits, such as reduced risk of heart disease, protection of brain tissue, and improved glucose metabolism. However, little information is available about the body’s ability to absorb and metabolize different anthocyanins. A human feeding study was conducted in which 12 adults consumed purple carrots containing five different anthocyanin forms. Blood and urine was collected and analyzed for appearance of the anthocyanins. A mathematical technique was used to compare rates of absorption and elimination of the anthocyanins. Results showed that absorption, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma elimination were dependent on anthocyanin chemical structure. Absorption efficiency of anthocyanins which had a chemical group called an acylation attached was less than that for anthocyanins without that chemical attachment. The acylated anthocyanins exhibited a shorter half-time for gastrointestinal absorption than the non-acylated. Non-acylated compounds were eliminated in urine more slowly than acylated anthocyanins. These results provide the first information about the kinetics of individual anthocyanins in humans. This study provides information that will be useful in developing dietary intake recommendations and thus of use to other scientists and health care professionals.

Technical Abstract: The kinetics of anthocyanin metabolism was investigated in a human feeding trial. Volunteers (n=12) consumed purple carrots containing five different anthocyanin forms: cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-feryloyl-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-(4-coumuroyl)-glucose-galactoside). The purple carrots were served as three different treatments in a crossover design with a 3-week washout between treatments. Purple carrot treatments were 250 g raw carrots, 250 grams cooked carrots, and 500 g cooked carrots. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for 8 and 24 hours after the dose, respectively, and analyzed for anthocyanins. Of the anthocyanin forms ingested, four were detected in plasma and urine: cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside), and cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-feryloyl-glucose-galactoside). The time courses of plasma and urine anthocyanin contents were evaluated with compartmental modeling. Results showed that absorption, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma elimination are dependent on anthocyanin structure. Absorption efficiencies of acylated compounds (cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-feryloyl-glucose-galactoside)) were less than those for non-acylated anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-6”-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(2”-xylose-galactoside)). The acylated anthocyanins exhibited a shorter half-time for gastrointestinal absorption than the non-acylated anthocyanins. Non-acylated compounds were eliminated more slowly than acylated anthocyanins. These results provide the first information about the kinetics of individual anthocyanins in humans.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014