Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 10, 2009
Publication Date: October 2, 2009
Citation: Annous, B.A., Smith, J.L., Fratamico, P.M., and Solomon, E.B. 2009. Biofilms in fresh fruit and vegetables. In: Fratamico, P.M., Annous, B.A., Gunther N.W. IV, editors. Biofilms in the food and beverage industries. 1st edition. Boca Raton, FL: Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC. p. 517-535. Technical Abstract: Bacteria can attach to surfaces and form biofilms, which have a characteristic structure consisting of microcolonies enclosed in a hydrated matrix of microbially-produced proteins and polysaccharides. In this complex biofilm network, the cells act less as individual entities and more as a collective living system, often with channels to deliver water and nutrients to the cells in the inner portion of the biofilm. Human pathogens form biofilms on food and food contact surfaces, which enhances their ability to survive harsh environments, to resist antimicrobial treatments, and to spread and persist in the food processing environment. The formation of biofilms is a food safety concern since persistent low-level contamination of foods can occur.