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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS TO ENHANCE THE UTILIZATION AND LONG-TERM STORAGE OF POULTRY, SWINE AND FISH GERMPLASM Title: Turkey Line Effect on Avidin, Avidin-Related Protein 2 and Progesterone Receptor Expression in the Reproductive Tract Following Artificial Insemination

Authors
item Foye Jackson, Ondulla
item Long, Julie
item Bakst, Murray
item Blomberg, Le Ann
item Silva, Marcos
item Becker, K -
item Wood, W -
item McMurtry, John

Submitted to: Poultry Science Association Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 25, 2009
Publication Date: July 20, 2009
Citation: Foye Jackson, O.T., Long, J.A., Bakst, M.R., Blomberg, L., Silva, M.V., Becker, K.G., Wood, W.H., McMurtry, J.P. 2009. Turkey Line Effect on Avidin, Avidin-Related Protein 2 and Progesterone Receptor Expression in the Reproductive Tract Following Artificial Insemination. Poultry Science 88 (Suppl. 1) Abstract 409, p. 125 (CD-Rom).

Interpretive Summary: Due to selection, the domestic turkey tom can no longer procreate naturally with the female. As a consequence, artificial insemination has become a necessity for the turkey industry to ensure reproductive efficiency and species preservation. In vivo the sperm storage tubules (SST) are capable of maintaining turkey sperm for up to 10 weeks after insemination. In contrast, in vitro semen storage methods fail to sustain sperm viability for longer than 6-8 h. Previously, it has been shown that the presence of sperm in the turkey’s SST was associated with up-regulation of avidin. Therefore, we aim to determine if avidin and avidin associated factors are a SST-specific, sperm-responsive genes across two commercial turkey lines. At 38 wks of age, turkey hens (Hybrid Grade Maker and Converter) were artificially inseminated with (AI) or without [sham-inseminated (SI)] semen. Forty-eight hr after insemination, total RNA was extracted from the vaginal epithelium (VGE) and SST of SI and AI hens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was utilized to analyze the expression of the avidin, avidin-related protein 2 (AVR2) and progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression. Grade Maker hens exhibited a tissue-dependent effect on avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, with a 40 to 70-fold increase in avidin expression in the SST versus VGE of AI and SI turkey hens, respectively. A sperm dependent effect was found only in the VGE tissues of Grade Maker hens. In contrast, only the tissue dependent effect was present in Converter turkey hens; avidin, AVR2 and PR mRNA expression were higher in the SST than in the VGE of AI and SI hens. The up-regulation of avidin and AVR2 within the sperm storage region indicates these factors may be involved in the sustained storage of sperm in the SST. Alternatively, there is no known metabolic role for avidin in the oviduct. Yet, avidin’s ability to bind biotin renders it antibacterial properties. Interestingly, Campylobacter and Samonella enteritidis have been isolated from semen of commercial turkey toms. The possibility that avidin in and around the SSTs may inhibit infiltration of bacteria should be considered. Greater insight of the regulatory mechanisms involved in prolonged sperm storage may improve in vitro semen storage conditions, reproductive efficiency and ultimately meat and egg production, which will be of great economic value to the poultry producer and American consumer.

Technical Abstract: Current in vitro semen storage methods maintain turkey sperm fecundity for 6-8 h. In contrast, sperm can be stored in vivo in the turkey hen’s sperm-storage tubules (SST) up to 10 wk. Yet, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms supporting sperm survival in the SST. It has been shown that the presence of sperm in the turkey’s SST was associated with up-regulation of avidin. To determine if avidin was a SST-specific, sperm-responsive gene across turkey lines, mRNA expression of avidin and two avidin associated factors, avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) and progesterone receptor (PR), was determined in the SST and adjoining vaginal epithelium (VGE). At 38 wks of age, turkey hens (Hybrid Grade Maker and Converter) were artificially inseminated with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender with (AI) or without semen [sham-inseminated (SI)]. Forty-eight hr after insemination, total RNA was extracted from the VGE and SST of SI and AI hens. Real-time PCR was utilized to analyze the expression of the avidin, AVR2 and PR transcripts. Grade Maker hens exhibited a tissue-dependent effect on avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, with a 40 to 70-fold increase in avidin expression in the SST versus VGE of AI and SI turkey hens, respectively. A sperm dependent effect was found only in the VGE tissues of Grade Maker hens. In contrast, only the tissue dependent effect was present in Converter turkey hens; avidin, AVR2 and PR mRNA expression were higher in the SST than in the VGE of AI and SI hens. The up-regulation of avidin and AVR2 within the sperm storage region indicates these factors may be involved in the sustained storage of sperm in the SST. Alternatively, there is no known metabolic role for avidin in the oviduct. Yet, avidin’s ability to bind biotin renders it antibacterial properties. Interestingly, Campylobacter and Samonella enteritidis have been isolated from semen of commercial turkey toms. The possibility that avidin in and around the SSTs may inhibit infiltration of bacteria should be considered. Key Words: sperm storage tubules, vaginal epithelium, uterovaginal junction

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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