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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The impact of revising fats and oils data in the US Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies

Authors
item AHUJA, JASPREET
item Lemar, Linda
item OMOLEWA-TOMOBI, GRACE
item GOLDMAN, JOSEPH
item MOSHFEGH, ALANNA

Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 26, 2009
Publication Date: March 9, 2009
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/39464
Citation: Ahuja, J.K., Lemar, L.E., Omolewa Tomobi, G., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2009. The impact of revising fats and oils data in the US Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.02.005.

Interpretive Summary: There have been tremendous changes in the U.S. food supply with respect to fats and oils used in foods. These rapid changes in the marketplace pose challenges in keeping fats and oils data in nutrient databases current with the marketplace. Major changes over time have occurred in the fats and oils data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), Releases 17, 18, and 20, reflecting major industry changes. New items were added and values for existing items updated. These data were incorporated into the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), Releases 2.0 and 3.0 through cooperation between the Food Surveys Research Group, where the FNDDS is prepared for analysis of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory, where the SR is produced and which serves as the basis for FNDDS. Using national data from the WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2004, the impact of these changes on daily nutrient intake estimates was determined. These changes resulted in minor but statistically significant (p<0.001) differences in mean intakes for the majority of the nutrients related to fats and oils.

Technical Abstract: Major changes in the fatty acid composition of industrial oils, margarines, and shortenings occurred in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), Releases 17, 18, and 20 from 2003-2007. New food items were added and nutrient values for existing foods updated. These data were then incorporated into the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), Releases 2.0 and 3.0. To determine the changes needed in FNDDS, recipes and ingredient lists were reviewed for types of fats/oils used for several food categories. The types of fat/oils in many commercially prepared foods and home/restaurant prepared foods were updated based on product formulation changes, availability of data in SR, and review of information from industry and food details from participants in the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Also, updated data from SR reflecting major industry changes in existing fats/oils and commercial foods were incorporated into the FNDDS. Using national dietary intake data from the WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2004, the impact of these changes on daily intake estimates for nutrients related to fats and oils was determined. These changes resulted in minor but statistically significant (p<0.001) differences in mean intakes for the majority of the nutrients. Maintaining nutrient databases and, fats and oils data, in particular, in the constantly changing U.S. food supply, is a challenging task achieved through multifaceted efforts by ARS specialists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory and the Food Surveys Research Group and the food industry.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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