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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

Authors
item Johnson, Judy
item Hansen, James D

Submitted to: Crop Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 11, 2008
Publication Date: November 3, 2008
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/20734
Citation: Johnson, J.A., Hansen, J. 2008. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export. Crop Protection. 27(11):1415-1420.

Interpretive Summary: Because cherries were reported to be a host of codling moth all US cherries destined for Japan must undergo a methyl bromide quarantine treatment. Due to concerns over its environmental affect on atmospheric ozone a ban against most uses of methyl bromide was instituted. Although quarantine uses are currently exempt from the ban, this may not always be the case. Consequently, other quarantine procedures are being considered because of both the uncertain regulatory future of methyl bromide, as well as concerns over fruit quality, health, safety and other environmental issues, and to reduce postharvest costs and handling. One alternative is a systems approach which relies on integrating production, harvesting, and packaging practices to cumulatively meet the requirements for quarantine security. To gain acceptance of a systems approach for sweet cherries exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth. This was done through field trapping and fruit evaluations. Pheromone traps were placed in commercial cherry orchards in the Yakima Valley in Washington and the San Joaquin Valley in California. Cherry orchards were adjacent or near to good hosts of codling moth (walnuts, apples, or pears) and no pest control measures that might affect codling moth were used on the cherry orchards. The maximum weekly trap catch in California was 5.5 codling moth adults per trap, whereas in Washington an organic orchard had the maximum weekly trap catch of 36.5 moths per trap and the highest weekly average catch of 11.0 moths per trap. At least 10,000 harvested cherries from each of the cherry orchards were examined under a dissecting microscope for the presence of codling moth larvae. A total of 78,701 fruits were examined, yet no codling moth larvae were found. These results indicate that cherries are not normally hosts for codling moth, even in areas with high adult populations. This information supports the system approach for quarantine security for domestic cherries exported to Japan.

Technical Abstract: To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This was done through field trapping and fruit evaluations in two western states (Washington and California). During the 2006 cherry season, pheromone traps were placed in 6 commercial cherry orchards within the Yakima Valley in Washington, and in 4 commercial orchards in the San Joaquin Valley in California. All cherry orchards were adjacent or near to walnuts, apples, or pear orchards, and no pest control measures that might affect codling moth were used on the cherry orchards. The maximum weekly trap catch in California was 5.5 codling moth adults per trap, whereas in Washington an organic orchard had the maximum weekly trap catch of 36.5 moths per trap and the highest weekly average catch of 11.0 moths per trap. At least 10,000 harvested cherries from each of 3 of the commercial Washington orchards, and all 4 California orchards were examined under a dissecting microscope for the presence of codling moth larvae. A total of 78,701 fruits were examined, yet no codling moth larvae were found. These results indicate that cherries are not normally hosts for codling moth, even in areas with high adult populations. This information supports the system approach for quarantine security for domestic cherries exported to Japan.

Last Modified: 11/23/2014
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