Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GENOMIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE MILK PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND CONTROL MASTITIS Title: Management and environmental influences on mammary gland develoment and milk production

Authors
item Capuco, Anthony
item Akers, Michael - VIRGINIA TECH

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: July 4, 2007
Publication Date: January 1, 2010
Citation: Capuco, A.V., Akers, M. 2010. Management and environmental influences on mammary gland develoment and milk production. In: Greenwood,P.L., Bell,A.W., Vercoe, P.E., Viljoen, G.J., editors. Managing prenatal development to enhance livestock productivity. The Netherlands:Springer. p. 259-292.

Interpretive Summary: Fetal and postnatal growth of the mammary gland is regulated by endocrine and paracrine signals. These may be influenced by external stimuli such as level of nutrition, biologically active components in the diet, and photoperiod. Thus management factors can alter mammary growth and differentiation. These effects may be immediate and short-lived, or long-term, depending upon the time when the stimulus is applied. Endocrine modulating factors, including nutritional influences, may produce long term effects when applied during critical periods of mammary gland development. This may induce epigenetic effects on the proliferation and differentiation of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. This in turn may enhance milk yield and persistency of lactation. Short-term effects such as stimulation or inhibition of lactogenesis may strongly influence survival and growth of neonates that are dependent upon suckling for nourishment. Recent development of tools for studying mammary growth, differentiation and gene expression hold the promise for continued advances in this important area for promoting livestock productivity and efficiency through improved management of growing animals.

Technical Abstract: Fetal and postnatal growth of the mammary gland is regulated by endocrine and paracrine signals. These may be influenced by external stimuli such as level of nutrition, biologically active components in the diet, and photoperiod. Thus management factors can alter mammary growth and differentiation. These effects may be immediate and short-lived, or long-term, depending upon the time when the stimulus is applied. Endocrine modulating factors, including nutritional influences, may produce long term effects when applied during critical periods of mammary gland development. This may induce epigenetic effects on the proliferation and differentiation of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. This in turn may enhance milk yield and persistency of lactation. Short-term effects such as stimulation or inhibition of lactogenesis may strongly influence survival and growth of neonates that are dependent upon suckling for nourishment. Recent development of tools for studying mammary growth, differentiation and gene expression hold the promise for continued advances in this important area for promoting livestock productivity and efficiency through improved management of growing animals.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014