MOLECULAR AND GENETIC APPROACHES TO SUPPRESSING FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION
Location: Plant Mycotoxin Research
Title: ENHANCING FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF FLUDIOXONIL BY DISRUPTING CELLULAR GLUTATHIONE HOMEOSTASIS
Submitted to: Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Letters
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 4, 2007
Publication Date: March 13, 2007
Citation: Kim, J.H., Campbell, B.C., Mahoney, N.E., Chan, K.L., Molyneux, R.J., May, G.S. 2007. Enhancement of fludioxonil fungicidal activity by disrupting cellular glutathione homeostasis with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Letters. 270(2):284290.
Interpretive Summary: A new commercial fungicide called fludioxonil is beginning to receive wide usage for the control of spoilage molds in citrus and apple products during processing, prior to storage. We found fungi can develop a resistance to this fungicide. However, using simple compound, that is related to aspirin, in combination with fludioxonil, can prevent the development of this resistance and increase the lethal effects of the fungicide.
Fungicidal activity of fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, is elevated by co-application with the aspirin/salicylic acid metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). Fludioxonil fungicidal activity is potentiated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulating osmotic/oxidative stress responses. Fludioxonil activity is enhanced by interfering with the oxidative stress response system. This is achieved by disrupting cellular GSH (reduced glutathione)/GSSG (oxidized glutathione) homeostasis by treatment with 2,5-DHBA.