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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Performance of exogenous sugarcane germplasm on mineral soils of Florida, USA

Authors
item Gilbert, Robert - UNIV. OF FLORIDA/IFAS
item Miller, Jimmy - USDA RETIRED
item Comstock, Jack
item Glaz, Barry
item Edme, Serge

Submitted to: International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Proceedings
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 8, 2007
Publication Date: June 1, 2007
Citation: Gilbert, R.A., Miller, J.D., Comstock, J.C., Glaz, B., Edme, S.J. Performance of exogenous sugarcane germplasm on mineral soils of Florida, USA. International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Proceedings. 26:388-393. 2007.

Interpretive Summary: The Canal Point (CP) breeding program has been very successful in producing commercial sugarcane cultivars for growers on organic soils in Florida. However 20% of sugarcane is cultivated on mineral soils in Florida, and growers have expressed interest in germplasm released from programs exclusively targeting mineral soils. A field study was established on three mineral soil sites in Florida in 2000 to evaluate eight sugarcane genotypes for yield and disease resistance. These genotypes, selected based on a phenotypic screening of genotypes from around the world, included CP68-350 (used in Texas and Argentina), CP78-1628 (check, #1 Florida cultivar on sand), CP73-1547 (check, previous #2 Florida cultivar on sand), LCP85-384 (#1 cultivar in Louisiana), LCP86-454 (Louisiana cultivar), TCP88-3461 (promising genotype in Texas), US90-0026 (borer-resistant) and TCP87-3388 (early-sugar cultivar). Sugarcane yield and disease data were collected for the plant cane and first ratoon crops. CP68-350 recorded significantly greater tonnage than the LCP, TCP and US clones in both plant and first ratoon crops. TCP87-3388 was notable for poor tonnage in both crops. The three CP clones tested ranked higher in tonnage, sucrose yield and economic index than the five exogenous clones in both the plant and first ratoon crops. Rust was observed in the field on the three CP clones as well as US90-0026 and TCP87-3388. Our results indicate that the exogenous germplasm tested was inferior to the CP clones when grown on mineral soils of Florida. One possible explanation is that Florida mineral soils cropped to sugarcane are generally Entisols or Spodosols with extremely low (< 3%) organic matter, whereas the LCP and TCP clones tested were selected in mineral soils with high clay contents in Louisiana and Texas. Thus selection of CP germplasm on sandy soils may be a more effective strategy than importation of exogenous commercial germplasm.

Technical Abstract: The Canal Point (CP) breeding program has been very successful in producing commercial sugarcane cultivars for growers on organic soils in Florida. However 20% of sugarcane is cultivated on mineral soils in Florida, and growers have expressed interest in germplasm released from programs exclusively targeting mineral soils. A field study was established on three mineral soil sites in Florida in 2000 to evaluate eight sugarcane genotypes for yield and disease resistance. These genotypes, selected based on a phenotypic screening of genotypes from around the world, included CP68-350 (used in Texas and Argentina), CP78-1628 (check, #1 Florida cultivar on sand), CP73-1547 (check, previous #2 Florida cultivar on sand), LCP85-384 (#1 cultivar in Louisiana), LCP86-454 (Louisiana cultivar), TCP88-3461 (promising genotype in Texas), US90-0026 (borer-resistant) and TCP87-3388 (early-sugar cultivar). Sugarcane yield and disease data were collected for the plant cane and first ratoon crops. CP68-350 recorded significantly greater tonnage than the LCP, TCP and US clones in both plant and first ratoon crops. TCP87-3388 was notable for poor tonnage in both crops. The three CP clones tested ranked higher in tonnage, sucrose yield and economic index than the five exogenous clones in both the plant and first ratoon crops. Rust was observed in the field on the three CP clones as well as US90-0026 and TCP87-3388. Our results indicate that the exogenous germplasm tested was inferior to the CP clones when grown on mineral soils of Florida. One possible explanation is that Florida mineral soils cropped to sugarcane are generally Entisols or Spodosols with extremely low (< 3%) organic matter, whereas the LCP and TCP clones tested were selected in mineral soils with high clay contents in Louisiana and Texas. Thus selection of CP germplasm on sandy soils may be a more effective strategy than importation of exogenous commercial germplasm.

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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