INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE EPIZOOTIC PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN SWINE AND CATTLE
Location: Food and Feed Safety Research
Title: LOW LEVEL NITRATE OR NITROETHANE PRECONDITIONING ENHANCES THE BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF SUBOPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE TREATMENT AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM BUT NOT CAMPYLOBACTER IN SWINE
Submitted to: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 9, 2006
Publication Date: December 20, 2006
Citation: Anderson, R.C., Jung, Y., Genovese, K.J., McReynolds, J.L., Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Harvey, R.B., Nisbet, D.J. 2006. Low level nitrate or nitroethane preconditioning enhances the bactericidal effect of suboptimal experimental chlorate treatment against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but not Campylobacter in swine. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 3:461-465.
Interpretive Summary: An experimental feed additive, designated ECP for Experimental Chlorate Product, has been developed by the USDA and has shown significant promise in reducing numbers of the disease causing bacteria Salmonella and Escherichia coli that are commonly found in the gut of food producing animals. In the present experiment, we combined this new feed additive with two additional chemicals, nitrate and nitroethane, and found that we killed 10- to 100-times more Salmonella and Escherichia coli than when we used ECP by itself. These results will help us develop new and improved feed additives to help farmers get rid of these disease causing bacteria from the gut of their animals. Ultimately, this research will help farmers and food processors produce more wholesome products for the American consumer.
An experimental chlorate product that targets the respiratory nitrate reductase enzyme of bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli has shown promising results in reducing concentrations of these bacteria in the gut of food animals. Because expression of the target enzyme is induced by nitrate, we administered short-duration, low level nitrate or nitroethane preconditioning treatments to finishing swine to see if these would enhance the ability of an experimental chlorate product to kill these bacteria. Results from these studies showed that preconditioning the gut microflora of swine with low levels of nitrate or nitrocompounds enhanced (> 10-fold) the ability of the chlorate product to kill Salmonella and E. coli, but not Campylobacter. Further studies are needed before these compounds can be fed as feed additives to animals, although it is likely that nitrate preconditioning may be more near to market than the nitrocompounds, which may require more comprehensive review by regulatory authorities.