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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Aquatic Toxicity of Nine Aircraft Deicer and Anti-Icer Formulations and Relative Toxicity of Additive Package Ingredients Alkylphenol Ethoxylates, and 4,5-Methyl-1h-Benzotriazoles

Authors
item Corsi, Steven - USGS
item Geis, Steven - WISCONSIN STATE GOV
item Loyo-Rosales, Jorge - UNIVERSITY OF MD
item RICE, CLIFFORD

Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 30, 2006
Publication Date: May 15, 2006
Citation: Corsi, S.R., Geis, S.W., Loyo-Rosales, J.E., Rice, C. 2006. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1h-benzotriazoles. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 40:3195-3202.

Interpretive Summary: Aircraft deicer fluids are released to the environment when conditions are least favorable for degradation and worst for aquatic release, e.g. winter and during runoff periods. Therefore aquatic toxicities of the components contained in the fluids are important to know. This is especially true when evidence of toxicities from deicers found in runoff waters is known. Several commercial fluids were characterized both for toxicity and chemical composition. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) is more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four aquatic organisms tested. Known component classes, Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with these additives. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives.

Technical Abstract: Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identity of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary between manufacturer and type of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) is more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Microtox, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7,700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1,550 to 45,100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1,300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18,400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with these additives. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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