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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Garbrecht, Jurgen
item Garbrecht, Gunther - RETIRED

Submitted to: Research Day Abstracts: Regional Universities Research Day
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2005
Publication Date: September 1, 2005
Citation: Garbrecht, J.D., Garbrecht, G. 2005. Water supply challenges and solutions of the ancient city of pergamon [abstract]. Oklahoma Water Conference, Oklahoma State University, September 27-28, 2005, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Available at:

Interpretive Summary: Abstract Only.

Technical Abstract: The city of Pergamon in western Turkey emerged as a power after the death of Alexander the Great and reached peak cultural and economic development during Hellenistic and Roman times. As early as 200 B.C., water requirements of the city exceeded locally available sources. First, the Greek, then the Romans, accessed and transferred water from far away sources to ensure a safe and reliable municipal water supply. Between 200 and 160 BC, the Greek constructed three pipelines. One of these pipelines contained an inverted siphon that had a pressure head up to about 600 ft. In the 2nd century AD, the Romans built three canals, two in the Kaikos valley and one as a replacement of an earlier Greek pipeline. The longest canal was about 45 miles long. The water supply systems of the City of Pergamon were highly sophisticated and advanced for the times, and the craftsmanship and execution of supporting hydraulic structures were outstanding and deserve our outmost admiration.

Last Modified: 8/25/2016
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