Submitted to: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: November 7, 2004
Publication Date: November 7, 2004
Citation: Allan, S.A., Bernier, U.R., Booth, M., Kline, D.L., Barnard, D.R. 2004. Evaluation of volatile compound from blood as attractants of anthropophilic and ornithophilic mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Technical Abstract: Research on mosquito attractants has primarily focused on responses of anthrophophilic mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti. With the introduction and spread of West Nile virus across North America, ornithophilic mosquitoes such as Culex spp. have become the focus for surveillance efforts, however, these species do not respond as readily to attractants effective for anthropophilic species. In this study, we focus on volatile compounds identified from bovine and avian blood and compare responses of anthropophilic (Ae. aegypti) and ornithophilic (Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus) mosquitoes. Volatile from blood samples were collected using various SPME (solid phase microextraction) fibers, purge and trap and solvent extractions with analysis by GC/MS. Dual choice olfactometer assays confirmed significant attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but not Cx. nigripalpus to bovine blood. All three species responded significantly to avian (chicken) blood. In olfactometer assays, Ae. aegypti responded to carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide and 2-pentatnone. Cx. quinquefasciatus responded only to dimethyl disulfide and Cx. nigripalpus did not respond to any compounds tested. A bioassay was developed to evaluate landing responses of all three species to blood and components from the blood. All three species responded significantly to both bovine and avian blood in this assay. Landing responses of Ae. aegypti were strong to a wide range of carboxylic acids, sulfide compounds and cholesterol. In contrast, Culex responded poorly to sulfide compounds, cholesterol and all carboxylic acids except for stearic acid. clear differences exist in responses of these mosquito species to host-derived odors and a discussion on these results relating to surveillance are discussed.