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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Neuron

Author
item Cheng, Heng Wei

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: May 27, 2004
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: A neuron is the basic cellular communication and information-processing unit of the nervous system. Anatomically, a neuron consists of three parts: a cell body (perikaryon or soma) with a nucleus and various organelles; axon (nerve fiber) with its ramiform terminals (synaptic bottons); and dendrites with their branches (dendritic tree) and spines. Functionally, a neuron detects and integrates stimulations from the internal and external environments. It transmits signals from one location to another along its axon, resulting in sensory and motor reactions, which permit an animal to enter and exploit its environments.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014