|Headrick, Marcia - FDA-CVM|
Submitted to: Animal Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 25, 2002
Publication Date: October 10, 2002
Citation: Cray, P.J., Englen, M.D., Gray, J.T., Jackson, C.R., Headrick, M. 2002. PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE. Animal Biotechnology. 13(1):43-45. Interpretive Summary: The development of antimicrobial resistance among food borne pathogens has become a global problem. Monitoring programs have been designed to track emerging resistance trends and monitor developing resistance over time. National and international meetings have been held to address the design and implementation of monitoring programs. This paper describes the bacteria often chosen as surveillance organisms and provides the rationale for their choice. Additionally, several antimicrobial monitoring programs are described including the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). This information is useful for those implementing new surveillance systems as well as commodity groups, consumers, other government agencies and scientists who require information on antimicrobial resistance trends.
Technical Abstract: Use of antimicrobials has increased in both human and veterinary medicine and the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials has become a global problem. This is due, in part, to the widespread availability of antimicrobials and the efficacy they impart in control of certain infectious diseases. Antimicrobial resistance (AR) can diminish the effectiveness or render an antimicrobial ineffective as a therapeutic. Although use may result in bacteria (both food borne and commensal) that are resistant, the exact fate of these populations in terms of persistence and transmission has been difficult to determine. Use patterns in veterinary medicine (therapeutic vs. subtherapeutic use) and agriculture further complicates the picture. Additionally, while transmission of resistant bacteria from animals to humans occurs, it has been difficult to assess the extent to which this occurs and the impact transmission has on disseminating resistant populations among humans. This paper provides an overview of surveillance organisms, antimicrobial resistance concerns, and a description of antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programs that have been established including the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems (NARMS) established in the United States.