Submitted to: World Health Organization
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: January 9, 2001
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: This paper, which was written at the request of the World Health Organization by Scientists at the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Florida, provides detailed information on currently available methods and techniques that can be used to protect travelers from the bites of mosquitoes, other blood sucking insects, ticks, and mites. It describes how personal protection from arthropod attack can be achieved by using clothing, screens, nets, enclosures, natural and synthetic chemicals, and by avoidance of insect/arthropod-infested areas.
Technical Abstract: Personal protection is a method used by humans to prevent attack by blood sucking insects, ticks, and mites. Categories of personal protection include avoidance of arthropod infested habitat and the use of physical barriers, such as clothing, window screens, and insect-proof bed nets. Chemical barriers consists of natural and synthetic repellents that can be applied to the skin, and/or toxicants, such as permethrin ((3-phen oxyphenyl) methyl (+\-) cis/trans 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl) 2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate), that can be applied to clothing, tent fabric, bednets, sleeping bags, and ground cloths. Common natural repellents are pyrethrum, citronella, quwenling, thyme and clove oil. Synthetic repellents include KBR 3023 (1-(1-methyl-propylcarbonyl)-2-(2- hydroxethyl)-piperidine), Merck 3535 (3-(N-buytlacetamino)- propionate), USDA AI3-37220 (1-(3-cyclohexen-1-ylcarbonyl)-2- methylpiperdine), and deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). Repellents/toxicants that can be used on fabric are deet and permethrin. The most effective strategy for defense against blood sucking and disease-bearing arthropods is to use deet on the skin and to wear clothing that has been treated with permethrin.