Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 15, 2000
Publication Date: August 1, 2000
Citation: Unruh, T.R., Knight, A.L., Upton, J.E., Glenn, D.M., Puterka, G.J. 2000. Particle films for suppression of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple and pear orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology. 93:737-743. Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is the most important pest of apple and pear worldwide. This pest has been controlled with organophosphate insecticides since the late 1950s. Recently mating disruption has been used to replace many pesticide sprays but 1 or more prays remain necessary in many areas. Particle film techniques as described here, represents a departure from insecticides that can be used, with or without mating disruption, for codling moth control. We show that 50 to 90% control of codling moth is possible in the field and that modifications of insect behavior is the key way particles act to produce this result.
Technical Abstract: Studies were conducted in 1997-1998 to evaluate the effects of 3 particle film formulations, consisting of kaolin and adjuvants, on neonate larvae, ovipositing adult females, and eggs of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Neonate larvae's walking speed, fruit discovery rate, and fruit penetration rate on apple host plants coated with particle films were significantly lower than on host plants without particle films in laboratory assays. Moths oviposited less on host plants covered with a particle film residue than on untreated plants in laboratory choice and no-choice tests. Hatch rate of codling moth eggs was unaffected by particle films, sprayed on host plants either before or after oviposition. Fruit infestation rates were significantly reduced on particle film treated trees compared to untreated trees for both first and second generation codling moth, in field trials in both apple and pear orchards. Particle films appear to be a promising supplemental control approach for codling moth in orchards where moth density is high, and may represent a stand-alone method where moth densities are lower.