Location: Rangeland Resources Research
Title: Seasonal temperature and precipitation effects on cow-calf production in northern mixed-grass prairie Authors
Submitted to: Livestock Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 25, 2013
Publication Date: July 4, 2013
Citation: Reeves, J.L., Derner, J.D., Sanderson, M.A., Petersen, M.K., Vermeire, L.T., Hendrickson, J.R., Kronberg, S.L. 2013. Seasonal temperature and precipitation effects on cow-calf production in northern mixed-grass prairie. Livestock Science. 155:355-363. Interpretive Summary: Understanding the influence of seasonal weather (precipitation, temperature) effects on livestock production in the western Great Plains would assist ranchers with planning for the grazing season and reduce enterprise risk. Thirty-four years of cow-calf beef production data from the USDA-ARS High Plains Grasslands Research Station near Cheyenne, WY, USA were used to determine the influence of spring (April – June) and summer (July – September) temperature and precipitation, as well as prior winter (October – March) and prior growing season (April – September) precipitation on livestock gains. Hereford cattle were more sensitive to seasonal weather patterns than crossbreds (Red Angus x Charolais x Salers), with warm and wet springs, and wet winters increasing beef production. Beef production from the crossbreds cattle did not show any weather effect patterns. The findings will be incorporated into decision support tools to help ranchers determine expected beef production in advance (perhaps months) of the grazing season to reduce enterprise risk.
Technical Abstract: Quantifying the effects of seasonal temperature and precipitation on cow-calf production on rangelands is challenging, as few long-term (>20 yr) studies have been reported. However, an understanding of how seasonal weather inconsistency affects beef production is needed for beef producers to better manage their herds on native rangelands to minimize enterprise risk with respect to climatic variability. Cow-calf beef production data collected at the USDA-ARS High Plains Grasslands Research Station near Cheyenne, WY, USA, from 1975-2012 were tested using model averaging for effects of spring (April – June) and summer (July – September) temperature and precipitation, as well as prior winter (October – March) and prior growing season (April – September) precipitation. Two breeds were used at different times during the study period (Herefords from 1975 – 2011 and a Red Angus x Charolais x Salers cross from 2003 – 2012; there was no grazing in 2002) and examined separately to test for differential effects of seasonal weather by breed. Herefords were more sensitive to seasonal weather patterns than the crossbreds, with Hereford pair total beef production showing the largest effect sizes. Warm, wet springs and wet winters increased Hereford beef production in this northern mixed-grass prairie, whereas beef production from the crossbreds did not show any weather effect patterns. The model structure used maximizes utility of these data to be built into decision support tools to help ranchers optimize stocking rates and minimize enterprise risk in advance of the grazing season.