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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCING QUALITY, UTILITY, SUSTAINABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COTTON AND ITS BYPRODUCTS THROUGH IMPROVEMENT IN HARVEST/GIN PROCESSING

Location: Cotton Ginning Research

Title: Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning of upland cotton

Authors
item Armijo, Carlos
item Foulk, John -
item Whitelock, Derek
item Hughs, Sidney
item Holt, Gregory
item Gillum, Marvis -

Submitted to: Applied Engineering in Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2013
Publication Date: August 22, 2013
Citation: Armijo, C.B., Foulk, J.A., Whitelock, D.P., Hughs, S.E., Holt, G.A., Gillum, M.N. 2013. Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning of upland cotton. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 29(4):461-471.

Interpretive Summary: Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. New high-speed roller ginning technology has advanced to the point that processing capacities have approached that of saw ginning. Producers seeking a better price for their upland cotton are interested in fiber property and textile mill performance data comparing cultivars processed by both saw and roller ginning. Three diverse cultivars, one of them stripper-harvested, were processed by saw ginning, conventional roller ginning, and high-speed roller ginning, with different levels of lint cleaning appropriate to each treatment. Results showed that the roller gin (conventional and high speed) produced fiber that was longer, more uniform and contained fewer fiber entanglements (neps) than the saw gin stand, but the composition of neps changed as fiber was processed into yarn. Differences among cultivar were prevalent throughout the study; the cultivar that was stripper harvested had about two time's higher trash content at harvest. Roller gin lint cleaning was less aggressive than saw-type lint cleaning and had longer fiber and fewer neps. Saw-type lint cleaning had better color and leaf grades, and less lint trash. There was no appreciable difference between the two types of roller gin lint cleaning used, but one saw-type lint cleaner as opposed to two was less damaging to the fiber. Although roller ginned upland cotton is a niche market, textile mills value the higher quality obtained from roller ginning. Newer upland cultivars may make roller ginning a viable option in parts of the U. S. where roller ginning has not been available previously.

Technical Abstract: Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. New high-speed roller ginning technology has advanced to the point that processing capacities have approached that of saw ginning. Producers seeking a better price for their upland cotton are interested in fiber property and textile mill performance data comparing cultivars processed by both saw and roller ginning. Three diverse cultivars, one of them stripper-harvested, were processed by saw ginning, conventional roller ginning, and high-speed roller ginning, with different levels of lint cleaning appropriate to each treatment. Samples were submitted for HVI and AFIS fiber property analysis. Ring-spun yarn from each treatment was tested. Results showed that the roller gin (conventional and high speed) produced fiber that was longer, more uniform, had less short fiber, and fewer neps than the saw gin stand. Turnout, color grade, and leaf were not different among gin stand type. With respect to yarn properties, the conventional/high-speed roller gin had fewer thick places, but was higher in vegetable and foreign dark matter (contaminants), seed coats, and neps. The composition of neps changed as fiber was processed into yarn. The conventional/high-speed roller gin had fewer raw stock and card mat neps than the saw gin stand, but more neps in finished yarn. Differences among cultivar were prevalent throughout the study. In addition to differences in length, strength, and immature fiber content, the cultivar that was stripper harvested had about two time's higher trash content at harvest. There were differences in most fiber properties, but not yarn properties, among lint cleaner type. Roller gin lint cleaning was less aggressive than saw-type lint cleaning and had longer fiber, better uniformity, and fewer neps. Saw-type lint cleaning had better color and leaf grades, and less lint trash. There was no appreciable difference between the two types of roller gin lint cleaning used, but one saw-type lint cleaner as opposed to two was less damaging to the fiber. Although roller ginned upland cotton is a niche market, textile mills value the higher quality obtained from roller ginning. Newer upland cultivars may make roller ginning a viable option in parts of the U. S. where roller ginning has not been available previously.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014