Title: ARS Research Review on "novel Immunotherapeutics As Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Promoters for Enteric Pathogens: An Update on the Mode of Action" Author
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 12, 2012
Publication Date: October 22, 2012
Citation: Lillehoj, H. S. 2012. Novel immunotherapeutics as alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for enteric pathogens: An update on the mode of action. Proceeding of United States Animal Health Assoc. (USAHS) Annual ARS Research Review, Greensboro, NC, Technical Abstract: With anticipated human population growth in the next decades, agricultural animal scientists need to focus on improving animal production to meet the demands. Furthermore, poultry industry is faced with new array of challenges. Among these are global food security, climate change, emerging infectious diseases, regulatory ban of antimicrobials, high-density production conditions, and waste management. In order to assure continuity in the supply of poultry food products, effective control measures against infectious diseases in the framework of environmental change are critical. In the United States, Clostridium-related diseases, such as gangrenous dermatitis (GD) and necrotic enteritis (NE), and coccidiosis are among the most important infectious diseases in chickens and turkeys. These infectious diseases are associated with intestinal inflammation and when undetected, they can decrease the efficiency of nutrient utilization of growing birds. Antimicrobials blended with antibiotics and anticoccidial drugs in food animal production are commonly practiced. In-feed antimicrobials are well known to affect gut microbiota due to their apparent in vitro antimicrobial properties. In addition, the evidence is increasing that gut microbiota plays an important role in health, immunity, and disease prevention. Overall, there is a cross talk among immunity and gut microbiota and we need to fully understand this to develop strategies for sustainable agricultural production of food animals. Dietary antimicrobials influence gut microbial community and the development and regulation of the host immune systems. Therefore, any non-drug alternative disease intervention strategies (e.g., nutrients, environment, antimicrobials, and feed additives, etc.) that may alter gut microbiota could affect the protective immune responses to enteric pathogens including Eimeria spp., Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. Based on the published literatures, it is clear that disturbance of gut microbial community by dietary antimicrobials, singly or in combination with antibiotics and antibiotic ionophores could negatively influence gut homeostasis and immune system. Especially since there is increasing evidence that low-level inclusion of antimicrobials, e.g., antibiotics, antibiotic-like coccidiostats, and chemicals may render the host susceptible to the enteric disease such as Clostridium spp. This presentation will highlight our recent approaches to develop alternative strategies to antibiotics. Strategies using passive immunization, probiotics, dietary feed-additives and anti-microbial peptides will be discussed.