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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL CROPS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

Location: Crop Protection and Management Research

Title: Cultural practices to improve in-row weed control with cultivation in organic peanut production

Authors
item Johnson, Wiley
item Boudreau, Mark -
item Davis, Jerry -

Submitted to: Weed Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 17, 2012
Publication Date: June 25, 2012
Citation: Johnson, III, W.C., Boudreau, M.A., Davis, J.W. 2012. Cultural practices to improve in-row weed control with cultivation in organic peanut production. Weed Technology. 26:718-723.

Interpretive Summary: Weeds are a serious challenge that limits expansion of organic peanut production. Weeds present between rows are effectively controlled with cultivation. However, weeds present in-row often escape control. Research trials were conducted in Ty Ty, GA to modify cultural practices to help peanut suppress weed emergence in-row. Modified cultural practices were three row pattern/seeding rate combinations; twin rows (four rows on a seedbed) seeded at the recommended (1X) seeding rate that produced a density 13 seed m-1 in each row, twin rows seeded at the 2X seeding rate that produced a density of 23 seed m-1 in each row, and wide rows (two rows on seedbed) seeded at the recommended seeding rate that produced a density of 23 seed m-1. Four cultivation regimes were evaluated; cultivation with a tine weeder at weekly intervals for 6 wk, cultivation with a tine weeder at weekly intervals for 8 wk, scouring with a brush-hoe at vegetative emergence followed by the tine weeder for 6 wk, and a non-cultivated control. There was inconsistent response of weed control and peanut yield to row pattern/seeding rates. Weed control and peanut yields were similar among tine weeding for 6wk, 8wk, or with the brush-hoe followed by the tine weeder. Weed management in organic peanut was not improved by altering peanut cultural practices that facilitate quicker canopy closure and the use of narrow row patterns should not be based on attempts to improve weed control in organic peanut. Narrow row patterns provide other benefits to organic peanut production and those attributes should influence decisions on the choice of row pattern, not weed control.

Technical Abstract: Cultivation is a proven effective means of weed control in organic peanut. However, weeds in-row often escape control. Research trials were conducted in Ty Ty, GA to modify cultural practices to help peanut suppress weed emergence in-row. Modified cultural practices were three row pattern/seeding rate combinations; twin rows (four rows on a seedbed) seeded at the recommended (1X) seeding rate that produced a density 13 seed m-1 in each row, twin rows seeded at the 2X seeding rate that produced a density of 23 seed m-1 in each row, and wide rows (two rows on seedbed) seeded at the recommended seeding rate that produced a density of 23 seed m-1. Four cultivation regimes were evaluated; cultivation with a tine weeder at weekly intervals for 6 wk, cultivation with a tine weeder at weekly intervals for 8 wk, scouring with a brush-hoe at vegetative emergence followed by the tine weeder for 6 wk, and a non-cultivated control. There were no interactions between row pattern/seeding rates and cultivation regimes for any parameter measured. There was inconsistent response of weed control and peanut yield to row pattern/seeding rates. Weed control and peanut yields were similar among tine weeding for 6wk, 8wk, or with the brush-hoe followed by the tine weeder. Weed management in organic peanut was not improved by altering peanut cultural practices that facilitate quicker canopy closure and the use of narrow row patterns should not be based on attempts to improve weed control in organic peanut. Narrow row patterns provide other benefits to organic peanut production and those attributes should influence decisions on the choice of row pattern, not weed control.

Last Modified: 9/23/2014
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