Submitted to: Vaccine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 5, 2012
Publication Date: March 30, 2012
Citation: Waters, W.R., Palmer, M.V., Buddle, B.M., Vordermeier, H.M. 2012. Bovine tuberculosis vaccine research: historical perspectives and recent advances. Vaccine. 30(16):2611-2622. Interpretive Summary: Despite highly successful eradication efforts in several countries, tuberculosis of cattle remains a serious health concern worldwide. In addition, an outbreak of tuberculosis in white-tailed deer in Michigan and continued importation of tuberculous cattle from Mexico have seriously hindered eradication efforts within the United States. Elsewhere, wildlife reservoirs including Eurasian badgers in the UK, brushtailed possums in New Zealand, wild boar in Spain, and cape buffalo in southern Africa seriously hinder control efforts. Without new strategies, eradication and control of bovine tuberculosis will be impossible. Thus, improved techniques such as vaccination are needed for prevention of tuberculosis in cattle. In this article, historical perspectives on bovine tuberculosis vaccine research are reviewed as well as recent advances. This article provides a summary on the current knowledge of bovine tuberculosis research.
Technical Abstract: The emergence of wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle as well as increased inter-regional trade with associated spread of M. bovis has led to renewed interest in the use of vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Field efficacy trials performed in the early 20th century demonstrated the partial effectiveness of bacilli Calmette Guerin (BCG) for the control of bovine TB. Recent experimental trials with cattle have demonstrated that: (1) subunit vaccines may boost immunity elicited by BCG in cattle, (2) T cell central memory immune responses evoked by protective vaccines correlate to protection upon subsequent M. bovis challenge, (3) BCG is particularly protective when administered to neonates, and (4) differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is feasible in cattle using in vitro or in vivo methods. In regards to wildlife reservoirs, the efficacy of BCG has been demonstrated for brushtailed possums (in field trials) as well as Eurasian badgers, wild boar, and white-tailed deer (each in experimental challenge studies). Vaccine delivery to wildlife reservoirs is primarily oral, although a parenteral route is being deployed for badgers in England. Vaccine efficacy trials, both experimental challenge and field studies, with cattle and their wildlife reservoirs represent a primary example of the one health approach, with outcomes relevant for both veterinary and medical applications.