ENHANCING ANIMAL WELL-BEING, IMMUNOCOMPETENCE, AND PERFORMANCE IN SWINE AND BEEF CATTLE
Location: Livestock Issues Research
Title: Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 18, 2011
Publication Date: April 14, 2011
Citation: Bernhard, B.C., Rathman, R.J., Burdick, N.C., Finck, D.N., Rounds, W., Carroll, J.A., Loyd, A.N., Johnson, B.J. 2011. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period [abstract]. Abstracts for The Plains Nutrition Council 2011 Spring Conference, April 14-15, 2011, San Antonio, TX. p. 88-89.
Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; 9 pens/treatment; 4 pens/block; 5 steers/pen) was used. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con), 100, 200, or 300 part per billion (ppb) of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. Cattle were weighed every 14 d. Shrunk body weights, ADG, DMI, G:F, and number of times treated for morbidity (treated if rectal temperature = 103.5F) were recorded. Feedlot performance and morbidity data were analyzed as orthogonal contrasts in the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure of SAS, respectively. From d 0 to d 56, BW (P=0.08) and DMI (P=0.12) displayed a tendency to increase linearly, and consequently ADG and G:F increased linearly (P=0.05) as Cr concentrations increased. Morbidity results showed a tendency (P=0.07) for a linear decrease in the number of head treated at least once for respiratory symptoms as the Cr concentration was increased. Twenty additional steers (518 +/- 9 lb) were fed 55 d to determine if supplementing Cr would alter the metabolism and immune response of newly received cattle. Cattle were supplemented with Con or 200 ppb Cr. Cattle were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices on d 52. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin sensitivity test (IST) were conducted on d 53 by infusing the steers with 45.4 mL of 50% Dextrose/100 lb of BW at 0900 h and 4.54 IU of bovine insulin/100 lb of BW at 1400 h, respectively. Blood samples were collected at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each infusion. On day 55, blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8, and at 24 h relative to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (22.7 microgram/100 lb of BW). All serum was isolated to determine glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. During the LPS challenge, steers were also assigned a sickness behavior score (SBS) from 1 (alert) to 5 (unresponsive) after each sample collection and concentrations of cortisol and cytokines were measured. Individual BW were recorded at cannulation, and 24 h and 7 d post-LPS. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure of SAS specific for repeated measures with fixed effects of treatment, time, and their interaction. Throughout the GTT, insulin concentrations post-infusion tended to be greater for the Cr steers (P=0.06); and NEFA concentrations were lower (P=0.01) for Cr steers both pre- and post-infusion. During the IST, post-infusion glucose concentrations were greater (P<0.01) in the Cr steers; and NEFA concentrations were lower (P<0.01) both pre- and post-infusion for Cr steers. Steers did not differ in cannulation BW (P=0.37), but 24 h post-LPS, Cr steers had lost less weight (P=0.03). Overall BW (cannulation to 7 d post-LPS), Con steers tended to lose weight and Cr steers tended to gain weight (P=0.09). Post-LPS glucose levels peaked greater at 0.5 h in the Cr steers (P<0.01). Post-LPS NEFA levels displayed that Cr steers produced greater peak NEFA levels at 0.5 h (P<0.04). Pre-LPS, Cr steers had greater RT (P<0.01), but post-LPS Con steers produced a greater change in RT (P<0.01). No differences detected in SBS pre-LPS (P>0.05), but Con steers had greater SBS post-LPS (P=0.03). Post-LPS TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma concentrations increased, with Cr steers producing greater TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma (P<0.01). Concentrations of IL-6 were greater in Cr steers pre- and post-LPS (P=0.03). Results of this study indicate that supplementation of Cr to the basal diet can have beneficial effects on the performance and health of newly received steers during the first 56 d on feed. Our data also suggest that supplementation of Cr can alter insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and immune response of newly received steers.