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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPROVEMENT OF PEST RESISTANCE AND QUALITY TRAITS OF SOYBEAN Title: Identification of loci for Resistance to Insects and Nematodes in Soybean

Authors
item Mian, Rouf
item Arelli, Prakash

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 28, 2011
Publication Date: April 30, 2012
Citation: Mian, R.M., Arelli, P.R. 2012. Identification of loci for resistance to insects and nematodes in soybean. In: Wenbin L., Lightfoot D., Editors. Recent Advances in Molecular Markers systems for soybean breeding. Beijing, China:Science Press. p. 89-127.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a major crop species in North and South America and in Eastern Asia. Cultivation of soybeans is increasing in many countries in South Asia and Africa. Many diseases, insects and nematodes reduce the yield and quality of soybeans each year. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) reduces yield more than any other pest in the world. Recent estimate of yearly losses were nearly 11 million tones. The total loss from insects are also in the millions of tonnes per year but a comprehensive survey on current worldwide yield losses of soybean from insects are not available. To date many genes (loci) for resistance to SCN and major insect pests of soybean have been identified and mapped with DNA markers. Inheritance of resistance to SCN is complex that involves quantitative trait loci (QTL). Resistance to some insects is controlled by single locus or R-gene while resistance to other insects is controlled by multiple genes or QTL. The progress in identifying loci (genes) controlling resistance to economically important insect pests of soybean and SCN is presented in this review article. More than 20 genes for resistance to foliage eating insects (e.g., corn earworm and soybean looper) and four R-genes for resistance to soybean aphids have been mapped with high-throughput polymerase chain reaction molecular markers. Identification of these insect resistant loci has opened the option for pyramiding of multiple loci for resistance from different sources, including transgenes when available. Genetic marker technology also helped the identification, localization, and characterization of genes associated with SCN resistance. The genes tagged with DNA markers can be used for marker assisted selection (MAS) of breeding lines for resistance. The existing patents on the use of DNA markers for SCN resistance discourage public soybean breeders from using MAS for this disease. Major soybean industries, however, are using MAS for SCN.

Technical Abstract: The cultivated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is now a major crop species in North and South America and in Eastern Asia. Cultivation of soybeans is on the rise in many countries in South Asia and Africa. Soybean yields are reduced each year by nematodes, pests and insects. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) reduces yield more than any other pest in the world. Recent estimate of yearly losses were nearly 11 million tons. The total loss from insects are also in the millions of tons per year but a comprehensive survey on current worldwide yield losses of soybean from insects are not available. To date many loci for resistance to SCN and a number of major insect pests of soybean have been identified and mapped with DNA markers. Inheritance of resistance to SCN is complex that involves quantitative trait loci (QTL). Resistance to some insects is controlled by single locus or R-gene while resistance to other insects is controlled by multiple genes or QTL. This review provides a comprehensive summary of loci identified for resistance to SCN and major insect pests of soybeans to date. More than 20 QTL for resistance to Lepidopteran insect (e.g., corn earworm and soybean looper) and four R-genes for resistance to soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been mapped with high-throughput polymerase chain reaction molecular markers. Molecular mapping of these insect resistant loci has opened the option for pyramiding of multiple loci for resistance from different sources, including transgenes when available. Genetic marker technology also facilitated the identification, localization, and characterization of QTL associated with SCN resistance. Consequently, numerous publications appeared on the identification and localization of QTL underlying resistance to SCN. Molecular markers can be successfully used for tagging SCN resistance genes (QTL) in soybean. These markers are valuable in marker assisted selection (MAS) of progenies for resistance. Markers for selection of the primary resistance genes rhg1, rhg2, rhg3, Rhg4, and Rhg5 are available. The existing patents on the use of molecular markers for SCN resistance are discouraging breeders from using MAS. However, major soybean industries are the current beneficiaries of MAS for SCN.

Last Modified: 11/26/2014
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