|O'Neil, Carol -|
|Nicklas, Theresa -|
|Liu, Yan -|
|Franklin, Frank -|
Submitted to: Public Health Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 6, 2008
Publication Date: November 12, 2008
Citation: O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Liu, Y., Franklin, F.A. 2008. The impact of dairy product consumption on nutrient adequacy and weight of head start mothers. Public Health Nutrition. 12(10): 1693-1701. Interpretive Summary: Low-income women tend to have diets that compromise their health. Females of low socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to report poor overall health, a chronic disease, or overweight/obesity. The present study examined the association of different levels of dairy product consumption with nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and body mass index of a group of ethnically diverse low-income mothers with children participating in Head Start. In a multi-ethnic low SES population, consumption of more than two servings of dairy products daily was associated with improved nutrient intake, including calcium, potassium, and magnesium – three shortfall nutrients in adults. Although, overall nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy were improved with higher levels of dairy product consumption, nutrient adequacy was poor in this low-SES group and the overall Body Mass Index scores were not impacted. Data suggest that efforts should be made to increase consumption of dairy products in this population, so that they approach the current dietary recommendations of three servings per day.
Technical Abstract: Our objective was to assess the relationship of dairy product consumption on diet quality and weight of low-income women. This occurred in Head Start centers in Texas and Alabama, USA. A cross-sectional study was used with women divided into dairy consumption groups: less than or equal to 1, greater than 1 to less than or equal to 2, and greater than 2 servings/d. Nutrient intake/diet quality was determined by calculating the percentage meeting the Estimated Average Requirement, guidelines for fat and added sugar, and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR). Mean BMI was compared for the dairy consumption groups. Subjects were mothers with children in Head Start: 609 African-Americans (43%), Hispanic-Americans (32%) and European-Americans (24%). Fifteen percent of participants consumed greater than 2 servings of dairy products and 57% consumed less than or equal to 1 serving of dairy daily. Intakes of protein, vitamin D, riboflavin, P, Ca, K, Mg, and Zn were significantly higher in those consuming greater than 2 servings/d. Total SFA were higher and added sugars were lower in those consuming greater than 2 servings of dairy products daily compared with those consuming less than or equal to 2 servings/d. Forty-one percent of women consuming greater than 2 servings of dairy daily had MAR scores under 85 compared with 94% consuming less than or equal to 1 serving/d. Mean BMI was 30.36 kg/m2; there was no association between BMI and dairy product consumption. Consumption of dairy products was low and was not associated with BMI in this low-income population. Higher levels of dairy product consumption were associated with higher MAR scores and improved intakes of Ca, K, and Mg, which have been identified as shortfall nutrients in the diets of adults.