Location: Honey Bee Research
Project Number: 2022-21000-018-00
Start Date: Feb 07, 2014
End Date: Feb 06, 2019
Subobjective 1A: Determine whether pollens collected by bees in the spring and summer differ in nutritional composition from pollens collected in the fall when colonies are preparing for overwintering. The pollen and bee bread will be collected from two general sources: 1) colonies that are open foraging on undefined pollen sources throughout the year and 2) colonies foraging on specific plants we provide. Subobjective 1B: Evaluate the effects of pollen sources on worker and larval hemolymph protein and lipids, on hypopharyngeal glands, and on virus and Nosema levels in workers. Subobjective 1C: Evaluate the effects of pollen contamination with the fungicide Pristine®, with and without the miticide Amitraz, on colony health and worker nutritional status during spring, summer and fall using uncontaminated pollen collected during each season. The experiments will have 4 treatments: pollen only, pollen fed to colonies with Amitraz strips, pollen with added fungicide, and pollen with added fungicide in colonies with Amitraz strips. Subobjective 1D: 1) Develop methods to link continuous weight and temperature data to hive phenology; and 2) conduct longitudinal and factorial field experiments to examine the effects of pesticide exposure and nutritional effects on changes in colony weight, internal temperature, forager activity and nutritional status. Subobjective 1E: Examine the effects of participation in a commercial pollination event, including exposure to fungicides and/ or pesticides, on bee colony growth and activity. Honey bee colonies will be established, thoroughly evaluated, and monitored continuously with electronic scales and temperature sensors prior to and during deployment to either 1) orchards likely to be treated with agrochemicals; or 2) orchards not likely to be treated. Subobjective 2A: Examine whether Varroa reproductive success is affected the nutritional value of pollen and by bee nutritional stress by exposing bees to pollens of different nutritional value, and to artificial pollen dearth through the use of pollen traps, and monitoring varroa populations. Subobjective 2B: Evaluate the effects of bee bread, made from pollens collected during spring, summer, or fall, and of supplemental protein diet, on worker hemolymph protein concentrations following parasitism by Varroa, in addition to field experiments to examine colony recovery from Varroa infestation. Subobjective 3A: Examine the effects of neonicotinoid exposure on pheromone-mediated interactions in bee colonies, with a focus on: Pheromone emissions (whole colony (E)-ß-ocimene, EO, BEP, QMP, and queen (E)-ß-ocimene), nutritional status (bee and food nutrient contents, bee mass, food stores cells), queen performance (queen-worker interactions and retention), forager effort, pesticide residues, and colony performance Subobjective 3B: Examine the effects of pesticide exposure on colony overwintering and almond pollination 1) during fall production of winter bees and 2) when colonies produce replacement bees for winter bees during the first annual forage by monitoring compounds listed in Subobj. 3A.