2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Identify the most efficient formats for extension tools.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
As the face and funding of university extension is changing across the US, so too must our communication strategies and materials. Our socioeconomic analyses will help us design new extension tools to reach our goal of encouraging growers to adopt preventative practices in young vineyards. A follow-up survey will gage our success in reaching this goal and, thus, the efficacy fo our extension tools.
This project was established in support of objective 1 of the in-house project, which is to develop sustainable disease control practices for grapevines. The goal of this project is identify the most efficient format for extension tools for wood-canker disease of grape.
Development of smart phone applications to aid trunk disease identifications, as well as submission of disease information to a central database:
The Virginia Polytechnic Institute’s team met three times (January, February, and April of 2013) to discuss outline of the application. We agreed to develop a few different types of application; a) smartphone native application, b) a web application, and c) hybrid application. At the meeting in September, 2013, additonal details of application (i.e., flow-chart of the actual application) as well as assembly of a new team because some of original team members are not available was discussed. Our aim is to develop a beta-version of applications by the end of 2013.
Community of practice:
We have been communicating with the coordinator of eViticulture and the eXtension to re-introduce our project to them. Revision of existing information on trunk diseases will be revised based on the results of other sections of this project. The aforementioned phone applications will be most likely to be distributed through a community of practice too.
Demonstration plots for Botryosphaeria canker management methods in Eastern grape growing regions:
We established five demonstration plots in northern and central Virginia. At locations 1, 2, and 3, there are three treatments.
2)Topsin-M application right after pruning, and.
3)regular single pruning. At locations 4 and 5, there are two treatments.
1)Topsin-M application right after pruning and.
2)regular single pruning. There are six replications per location, and a vine is an experimental unit. One exception is the location number 5, where a portion of vineyard (two rows) was used, and there was only one block per treatment. Since disease development of Botryosphaeria canker on grape is relatively slow, we sampled tissue from pruning wounds and to determine if infection took place. Five tissues per vine were sampled, and subjected to a DNA assay to detect multiple species of Botryosphaeriaceae. A PCR-based detection protocol for grapevine-pathogenic members of the Botryosphaeriaceae was used. This nested PCR protocol first amplifies an ITS region (a part of DNA) common to all fungi, and then specifically amplifies smaller regions found in either all known grapevine-pathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae species, or the Neofusicoccum parvum/N. ribis complex, which contains the most virulent Botryosphaeriaceae on grapevines. The primer sets used for this protocol are ITS4/ITS5, NprcA/NprcB, and BoitsA/BoitsB, respectively. Using PCR, confirmed the presence of these Botryosphaeriaceae species in infected grapevine tissues. In every instance examined, members of the N. parvum/N. ribis complex have been present in these grapevines. Treatments were applied in early April, samples were taken in mid-July, and DNA testing has been conducted since mid-July, 2013.
Collaborations with other sections:
I have been communicating closely with a scientist at Sacramento State University on his modeling effort, as well as with the USDA, ARS principal investigator on the overall progress of the project and development of the database.