2013 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Increase oil content above 22% while maintaining protein content at 41.5% and maintaining or increasing yield.
2. Increase stearic acid content, combining it with high oleic acid and high yield.
3. Decrease palmitic acid (less total saturated fatty acids), combining it with high oleic acid, low linolenic acid and high yield.
4. Continue to explore new and beneficial genetic resources (plant introductions, genes, molecular markers, and gene combinations) of oil traits that do not decrease yield and are environmentally stable.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Soybean breeders in GA, NC, OH, TN, MO, AR, MI, SD and MN will work together to development productive soybean germplasms and varieties with improved oil quality, focusing on high oleic (HO) plus low palmitic acid, HO plus low palmiticis acid and low linolenic acid, HO plus high stearic acid, and HO plus increased bio-available tocopherol content. The genes controlling the traits will be merged using the latest molecular marker technology, and germplasm will be produced and tested in multiple field environments to confirm the stability of these improved fatty acid profiles. Some of the researchers will work on identifying new genes that affect oil composition to offer new alternatives for breeders and to avoid the potential problems associated with fixation of specific regions of the soybean genome.
This project is related to Objective 2 of the in-house project: To discover novel genes/alleles in soybean for seed composition, determine their inheritance, determine genomic location, transfer to adapted germplasm, and release. The results from our yield trials for lines with modified fatty acid compostion showed that the high stearic line LLL05-14 yielded 90% of the RR check AGS606RR in the Uniform preliminary yield trials and in our local preliminary yield trials, the low palmitic line N10-FA-3144 yielded 100% of the check. Research on the interaction between high oleic and high stearic loci was completed. F1 plants from the crosses between a FAM94-41-3 derived line (delta 9–stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase-C point mutation)-and TCHM08-1087-11(delta 9–stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase-C deletion), a selection from TCHM08-1087, and S09-2902-145, a high oleic line containing missense mutations in two fatty acid desaturases (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B) were grown in a greenhouse and individual F2 seed were genotyped and phenotyped. No interaction was observed between either FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B and any of the SACPD-C mutant alleles. Seed homozygous mutant for SACPD-C/FAD2-1A/FAD2-1B contained 12.7% stearic acid and 65.5% oleic acid while seed homozygous for the SACPD-C deletion and mutant for FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B averaged 10.4% stearic acid and 75.9% oleic acid. This research demonstrates that it should be possible to develop high stearic high oleic lines. A publication about this work was submitted to the journal Theoretical and Applied Genetics. In the Puerto Rico Winter nursery, the two high oleic loci FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B are being backcrossed (BC) to the recurrent parents NC-Miller and NC-Roy. We have reached a BC4 generation for both parents. Also, the two low linolenic loci FAD3A and FAD3C are being backcrossed to the same recurrent parents (BC2 is the current generation).
The Authorized Departmental Officer's Designated Representative monitored activities of project through frequent phone calls and emails, two formal meetings, site visits, and through quarterly reports.