2012 Annual Report
2. Identify genetic and biological determinants of virulence, tissue tropism and host range of avian influenza virus.
3. Identify genetic and biological determinants of avian influenza virus susceptibility and resistance in avian species.
4. Improve existing diagnostic tests and testing strategies for avian influenza virus surveillance, detection, and recovery from disease outbreaks.
5. Develop new vaccine platforms designed to control and prevent avian influenza virus outbreaks.
Monitoring of wild bird specimens for avian influenza virus (AIV) to understand influenza ecology has been an ongoing effort since 1998. Testing samples from wild birds for AIV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which detect the genetic material of the virus. If that test is positive attempts are made to detect live virus in the specimen, then analyze its genetics. In this last group of sample no live viruses were detected. This provides data that the types of birds tested probably do not harbor AIV.
One of the most widely used diagnostic tests for AIV detects the genetic material of the virus, but the sensitivity can be affected by extraneous material in the sample or virus levels may be too low. One method to improve sensitivity is to incubate the sample in culture for a short time to increase the amount of virus. This is faster and cheaper than culture alone. Nine isolates of diverse origins were tested and it demonstrated that incubating sample material in culture for 24 hours could improve sensitivity by 10 and up to 100 times testing sample material directly.
Substantial progress was also made in determining the genes involved in virulence for H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV infection in ducks and the effect of duck age and species on clinical disease. Vaccine work with ducks, chickens and turkeys continues including evaluating commercially available vaccines for efficacy against newly emerging strains of AIV and exploring how maternally derived immunity impacts vaccine efficacy. The Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory continues to collaborate with different Internation Organizations. This includes a Collaborating Center status with the World Organization for Animal Health (O.I.E.) on Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease virus with the organization. In addition they were designated a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Reference Center on Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease virus. We contribute research information and expertise for the control of these diseases around the world.
Swayne, D.E., Pavade, G., Hamilton, K., Vallat, B., Miyagishima, K. 2011. Assessment of national strategies for control of high pathogenicity avian influenza and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination. OIE Scientific and Technical Review. 30(3):839-870.
Swayne, D.E., Eggert, D.L., Beck, J.R. 2012. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine. Vaccine. Vaccine 30:4964-4970.
Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Smith, D.M., Wasilenko, J.L., Spackman, E.V. 2012. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation. Avian Diseases. 56:276-281.
Wasilenko, J.L., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Khan, T., Ahmed, A., Rehmani, S., Lone, N., Swayne, D.E., Spackman, E. 2012. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008. Virus Genes. 44:247-52.
Cagle, C.A., To, T., Nguyen, T., Wasilenko, J.L., Adams, S.C., Cardona, C.J., Spackman, E., Suarez, D.L., Pantin Jackwood, M.J. 2011. Pekin and Muscovy ducks respond differently to vaccination with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) commercial inactivated virus. Vaccine. 29(38):6549-6557.
Belser, J., Gustin, K.M., Maines, T.R., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Katz, J.M., Tumpey, T.M. 2012. Influenza virus respiratory infection and transmission following ocular inoculation in ferrets. PLoS Pathogens. 8(3):e1002569.
Pearce, M.B., Belser, J., Gustin, K.M., Pappas, C., Houser, K.V., Sun, X., Maines, T.R., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Katz, J.M., Tumpey, T.M. 2012. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets. Journal of Virology. 86(13):7118-7125.
Sa E Silva, M., Mathieu, C.M., Kwon, Y., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Swayne, D.E. 2011. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera). Avian Diseases. 55(3):459-461.
Wang, L., Qin, Z., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Faulkner, O.B., Suarez, D.L., Garacia, M., Lupiani, B., Reddy, S., Saif, Y., Lee, C. 2011. Development of DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines utilizing heterologous NA and NS1 protein strategies for the control of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza in turkeys. Vaccine. 29:7966-7974.
Josset, L., Belser, J., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Chang, J., Chang, S., Belisle, S., Tumpey, T.M., Katze, M.G. 2012. Implication of inflammatory macrophages, nuclear receptors and interferon regulatory factors in increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after host adaptation. Journal of Virology. 86(13):7192-7206.
Ladman, B., Spackman, E., Gelb, J. 2012. Comparison of pooling eleven and five oropharyngeal swabbings for detecting avian influenza virus by real-time RT-PCR in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases. 56(1):227-229.
Abbas, M.A., Spackman,E., Fouchier, R., Smith, D., Ahmed,Z., Siddique,N., Sarmento,L., Naeem,K., McKinley, E.T., Hameed,A., Rehmani,S., Swayne, D.E. 2011. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates. Vaccine. 29(43):7424-7429.
Wilcox, B.R., Knutsen, G.A., Berdeen, J., Goekjian, V., Poulson, R., Goyal, S., Sreevastan, S., Cardona, C., Berghaus, R., Swayne, D.E., Yabsley, M., Stallknecht, D. 2011. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity. PLoS One. 6(9):e24010.
Chmielewski, R.A., Day, J.M., Spatz, S.J., Yu, Q., Gast, R.K., Zsak, L., Swayne, D.E. 2011. Thermal inactivation of avian viral pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility. Applied Biosafety. 16(4):206-217.
Pavade, G., Awada, L., Hamilton, K., Swayne, D.E. 2012. Analysis of economic indicators, poultry density and performance of veterinary services for control of high pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry. OIE Scientific and Technical Review. 30(3):661-671.