2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1. Fractionate fiber, water-soluble, alcohol-soluble and lipid-soluble fractions from the increasingly large amounts of fruit and vegetable byproducts including pomace of olives, grapes, and pomegranates and the bran of cereal grains in order to identify, condense, and test bioactive compounds in animal models of obesity related diseases.
Sub-Objective 1.1. Separate different fruit tissues (skin, pulp, juice) and cereal brans (germ, aleurone, fat) using physical processes, and fractionate followed by extraction with food approved solvent methods.
Sub-Objective 1.2. Assess bioactivity of extracts and residues of 1.1 by feeding mice or hamsters hypercholesterolemic diets and determining physiologic characteristics of obesity related metabolic syndrome.
Objective 2. Develop processing methods that disrupt food matrices or cell barriers in order to increase accessibility to cellular contents and increase the bioavailability of phytonutrients from fractions of fruit and vegetable based byproducts including pomace of olives, grapes, and pomegranates, as well as grain byproducts from Obj. 1.1 that contain complex mixtures of phenolic compounds that may help to prevent obesity related diseases and add value.
Sub-Objective 2.1. Evaluate processes such as enzymatic treatment (cellulase, esterase, phytase), sonication, ethanol extraction, and high pressure to
increase bioavailability of phytochemicals and fiber, and to improve consistency of composition and bioavailability of samples for in vivo studies.
Subobjective 2.2. Test samples identified as bioactive in 1.2 as well as those further processed in 2.1 for their bioavailability. Also characterize phytochemical composition of bioavailable fractions by HPLC.
Objective 3. Evaluate a variety of viscous and gelling soluble dietary fibers to produce breads and other cereal products that are high in fiber and micronutrients.
Sub-Objective 3.1. Breads and other baked products will be developed from non-gluten whole grains and bran such as corn, rice, oat, barley, rye, quinoa, amaranth in order to increase the diversity of whole grain products available to consumers. Viscous soluble dietary fibers are necessary to replace gluten, but also reduce postprandial glycemic response and plasma cholesterol.
Sub-Objective 3.2. Preliminary studies indicate difference in hepatic nutrient metabolism between wheat and barley flours was not accounted for by soluble fiber content. We propose to evaluate a variety of cereal grains and seeds for bioactivity by analyzing expression of hepatic genes representative of metabolism of sterols, bile acids, and fat, and indicators of inflamation.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Food processing technologies will be applied to release the high concentration of polyphenolic components from the matrices of the skin and bran byproducts of juice, wine, oil and flour production. Polyphenolics will be extracted from these processed matrices by systematic application of food grade solvents into broad classes and a fiber fraction. Mice and hamster models of obesity related diseases will be used to determine the potential of the polyphenolic or fiber fractions to reduce or prevent the characteristics of metabolic diseases. Mechanisms will be investigated through gene expression pathway analysis. Of particular interest is the ability of polyphenolics or fiber to reduce the absorption of lipopolysaccharides that trigger adipose inflammatory responses. Viscous soluble fibers will be used to develop breads from nontraditional whole grains and seeds to determine if they have potential to reduce metabolic syndrome in animal models.
Substantial progress was made on the three project objectives and subobjectives. The separation of wine grape byproduct into seed, peel and oil fractions and the chemical analysis of the fractions of several wine grape varieities was significantly accelerated by the formation of a CRADA. Due to the CRADA collaboration, two animal studies of the nutritional potential were conducted resulting in the identification of a highly active variety and byproduct fraction that was highly effective in preventing both plasma cholesterol increases and body weight gain in animals on high fat diets. The underlying, changes expression of genes responsible for the cholesterol and body weight in liver and fat cells were identified. Also the active component or a marker for the active component was identified in a second animal study. Excellent progress was also made in the development of flat breads from grains and seeds that do not contain gluten in an effort to increase the availability of whole grain products for consumers. This research was also accelerated by CRADA funding and focus on the supplementation of breads with protein byproduct from rice syrup production.
Development of flat breads from grains and seeds lacking gluten. Several formulations and methods were developed for flat breads from grains and seeds lacking gluten in order to increase foods containing significant amounts of whole grains for consumers. Sensory evaluation of these breads were favorable in many cases. In collaboration with a CRADA partner some formulations were supplemented with rice protein, a hypoallergenic byproduct of rice syrup production. Other formulations contained significant amounts of resistant starch, a source of prebiotic colon nutrition. These flat breads provide a nutritous, gluten-free alternative to traditional breads and tortillas for consumers.
Prevention of cholesterol and weight increases by white grape seed in hamsters. In collaboration with CRADA partners, researchers in Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, California, found that grape seed flour from a white wine grape variety, but not red grapes or grape skins, prevented increases in plasma cholesterol (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease) and weight gain in hamsters that became obese when fed a high fat diet. Changes in the metabolic pathways of cholesterol and fat metabolism supported the physiological observations. An invention disclosure has been submitted, and human clinical trials are being planned. This research can improve human health.
Huijuan, Z., Bartley, G.E., Mitchell, C., Hui, Z., Yokoyama, W.H. 2011. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(20):10297-10933.
Kahlon, T.S., Chiu, M.M. 2012. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads. Cereal Foods World. 57(1):6-9.
Kumar, S., Hahn, F.M., Baidoo, E., Kahlon, T.S., Wood, D.F., Mcmahan, C.M., Cornish, K., Keasling, J., Daniell, H., Whalen, M.C. 2011. Remodeling the isoprenoid pathway in tobacco by expressing the cytoplasmic mevalonate pathway in chloroplasts. Metabolic Engineering. 14(1):19-28.
Kim, H., Bartley, G.E., Young, S.A., Davis, P.A., Yokoyama, W.H. 2012. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 00:1-3. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201200082.
Kahlon, T.S., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Chiu, M.M. 2012. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 3(3):401-404.
Young, S.A., Hung, S., Anderson, W., Albers, D., Langhorst, M., Williams, D., Yokoyama, W.H. 2012. Effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose on glucose tolerance and obesity. Journal of Diabetes. 4(1):85-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2011.00157.x.
Xu, Z., Zhong, F., Li, Y., Shoemaker, C., Yokoyama, W.H., Xia, W. 2012. The effect of polysaccharides on the gelatinization properties of cornstarch dispersions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(2):658-664.
Li, Y., Zhong, F., Ji, W., Yokoyama, W.H., Shoemaker, C.F., Zhu, S., Xia, W. 2012. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Food Hydrocolloids Journal. 30(1):53-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.04.013.
Zhang, H., Yokoyama, W.H., Zhang, H. 2012. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 92(7):1395-1401. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4713.
Davis, P.A., Vasu, V., Gohil, K., Kim, H., Khan, I., Cross, C., Yokoyama, W.H. 2012. A high-fat diet containing whole walnuts (Juglans regia) reduces tumour size and growth along with plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. British Journal of Nutrition. 00:1-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511007288.
Yokoyama, W.H., Anderson, W.H., Albers, D.R., Hong, Y., Langhorst, M.L., Hung, S., Young, S.A. 2011. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(20):11249-11254.
Davis, P.A., Yokoyama, W.H. 2011. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis. Journal of Medicinal Foods. 14(9):884-889. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0180.
Kahlon, T.S., Milczarek, R.R., Chiu, M.M. 2012. In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 3: 951-958. DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37126.