2012 Annual Report
Protein baits for West Indian fruit flies. As part of an ongoing collaboration with ARS-TARS, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, field and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate protein-based attractants for the West Indian fruit fly. Field tests included monitoring temporal and spatial distributions of fly populations in orchards and adjacent forest refuges. Laboratory studies included electroantennography (EAG) analyses to determine the effect of female age and reproductive status on olfactory response to ammonia and putrescine lures.
Field tests of baits for pest drosophilid fruit flies. Field tests are ongoing to test liquid baits as lures for pest drosophilid flies, including the spotted wing drosophila, the African fig fly and D. melanogaster in fruiting trees at SHRS. Baits include vinegar, wine, sugar alone and in combinations, as well as synthetic chemicals identified from those substances by SHRS scientists as well as by ARS collaborators.
Behavior of male medflies in response to exposure to plant essential oils. Effect of essential oil concentration was tested in laboratory bioassays using sterile males. High concentrations of several oils were found to be toxic to males when they were tested in closed vials, indicating a fumigant effect. Males did not approach high concentrations of these essential oils in movement bioassays using olfactometers, but moved preferentially toward those oils when tested at lower concentrations.
Host preferences of the redbay ambrosia beetle. As part of research to identify host-based attractants for the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), the vector of laurel wilt disease, comparative studies were expanded to evaluate species of Lauraceae that occur primarily outside of Florida. In collaboration with the USDA-Forest Service, field tests and laboratory bioassays were conducted with freshly-cut branches to determine relative attraction and boring behaviors (host recognition/acceptance) of RAB to California bay laurel, camphor tree, sassafras, and spicebush. Comparative analysis of wood volatiles from these tree species, in combination with data collected previously (from avocado, redbay, swampbay, silkbay, and lancewood) is being used to identify the specific chemicals responsible for attraction of female RAB.
Evaluation of essential oils for attraction of RAB. Previous research by SHRS scientists indicated that the current RAB lure (manuka oil) has a short field life (2-3 wks) in Florida and is not competitive with host wood. Ongoing field tests are evaluating (1) additional plant essential oils for improved attraction of RAB, and (2) different formulations of manuka oil to increase the release rates of RAB attractants and to improve lure longevity.
Niogret, J., Kendra, P.E., Epsky, N.D., Heath, R.R. 2011. Comparative analysis of terpenoid emissions from Florida host trees of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: scolytinae). Florida Entomologist. 94(4):1010-1017.
Peña, J.E., Crane, J.H., Capinera, J.L., Duncan, R.E., Kendra, P.E., Ploetz, R.C., Mclean, S., Brar, G., Thomas, M.C., Cave, R.D. 2011. Chemical control of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and other Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist. 94(4):882-896.
Kendra, P.E., Niogret, J., Montgomery, W.S., Sanchez, J., Deyrup, M.A., Pruett, G.E., Ploetz, R.C., Epsky, N.D., Heath, R.R. 2012. Temporal analysis of sesquiterpene emissions from manuka and phoebe oil lures and efficacy for attraction of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(2):659-669.
Reed, S.T., Epsky, N.D., Heath, R.R., Joseph, R. 2012. The effects of composted insect rearing waste on radish, squash and green bean. Compost Science and Utilization. 20(2):87-91.
Jenkins, D.A., Kendra, P.E., Epsky, N.D., Montgomery, W.S., Heath, R.R., Jenkins, D.M., Goenaga, R.J. 2012. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures. Florida Entomologist. 95(1):28-34.
Kendra, P.E., Montgomery, W.S., Sanchez, J., Deyrup, M.A., Niogret, J., Epsky, N.D. 2012. Method for collection of live redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Florida Entomologist. 95(2):513-516.
Epsky, N.D., Midgarden, D., Rendon, P., Villatoro, D., Heath, R.R. 2012. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(2):471-479.