2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objectives of this research are to:.
1)demonstrate the ability of Canada thistle seedlings, systemically diseased with the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis, to reduce thistle density and provide sustainable biological control,.
2)implement successful biological control of Canada thistle on a relatively large scale, and.
3)provide land managers with the techniques to mass produce systemically diseased seedlings, introduce them into thistle patches, and effectively manage the patches to optimize biological control with the rust fungus and expand areas under control.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Canada thistle seedlings systemically diseased with the rust fungus, P. punctiformis, will be produced in greenhouses in either Ft. Detrick (for use in Maryland) or at Pennsylvania State University (for use in Pennsylvania). Diseased seedlings will be produced using teliospores of the fungus collected from the state of intended use, and seedlings will be transplanted to healthy patches in April. Either 0, 2, 4, or 6 systemically diseased seedlings will be established per each patch with one inoculum level per patch. At each inoculum level, half the number of the patches will be mowed and the other half left un-mowed. Procedures for producing systemically diseased seedlings will be transferred to stakeholders. We plan on locating and using 96 Canada thistle patches in 12 field sites, with about half of the sites in Maryland and half in Pennsylvania. A minimum of ten healthy thistle patches will be used for each field site. Stakeholders in charge of sites will mow or arrange to mow half of the patches in these sites. Data from each patch will be collected each year in June - July. Dependent variables will be: healthy Canada thistle density, diseased shoot density, and patch diameter. Data collection will be done by student interns under the supervision of a graduate student at Pennsylvania State University.
Project objectives are to: mass-produce Canada thistle seedlings systemically diseased with Puccinia punctiformis; establish mass-produced systemically diseased seedlings within naturally occurring thistle patches; assess, the effects of systemically diseased plants on total thistle density, systemically diseased shoot density, and patch diameter, over a period of four years; and to demonstrate to public and private land managers the effectiveness of establishing systemically diseased seedlings on Canada thistle control. Diseased seedlings produced by this method at FDWSRU, were planted into six sites in Maryland during April and May, 2008. Disease progress is being assessed by a Ph.D. student and student interns from Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and by technicians from FDWSRU. Diseased plants are being produced to augment those established this year and to establish diseased plants in Pennsylvania sites next year. The latter is being done at Penn State. Numerous meetings have been held with personnel from NRCS, state departments of agriculture, and state highway administrations to locate and manage these field sites. Monitoring performed by meetings and teleconferences with PI.
This research falls within ARS National Program 304, Crop Protection & Quarantine, specifically addressing Component IX (Biological Control of Weeds). The project relates directly to NP 304 Action Plan Components IX.2B (Efficacy and Mass Production of Augmentative Agents); and IX.2C (Field Evaluation).