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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOP AND IMPROVE STRATEGIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND SOILS

Location: Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research

Project Number: 5368-12000-009-00
Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Nov 28, 2006
End Date: Sep 30, 2011

Objective:
1) Develop improved management strategies for enhancing nutrient use efficiencies to produce crops on irrigated land. 2) Develop management practices to effectively and efficiently use amendments in irrigated systems. a. Polyacrylamide (PAM), biopolymers, surfactants, alum, etc. 1. Extend the beneficial effects of subsoil barrier-disruption tillage through several growing seasons without the need for additional subsoil tillage. 2. Determine the effects of a new class of soil surfactants on infiltration, erosion, water retention, aggregate stability and soil strength. 3. Determine if the surface application of alum to sites receiving manure and fertilizer application can be used to sequester excess phosphorus and reduce phosphorus export from irrigated fields. 4. Identify and conduct field tests to verify efficacy of one or more biopolymers for use in water clarification and erosion control. 5. Compare the effectiveness of emulsion vs granular PAM for erosion control and infiltration enhancement over consecutive, multiple-year applications; and characterize soil and field properties effecting PAM efficacy. b. Manure 1. Determine dissolved organic carbon losses occurring under traditional vs dairy-manure fertilizer applications on furrow-irrigated, calcareous soils. 2. Assess the use of composted dairy manure and whey for improving surface soil structure. 3. Develop soil management systems for utilizing manure and/or compost to increase infiltration and reduce surface sealing and crusting 4. Determine the influence of roller harrow (shallow; 5 cm) and chisel (deep; 20 cm) tillage in combination with high and low applications of dairy manure to irrigated agricultural land managed for organic C sequestration in soil. (This objective contributes to the GRACEnet CLEAR project.) The objective of this research will be to determine the influence of roller harrow (shallow; 5 cm) and chisel (deep; 20 cm) tillage in combination with high and low applications of dairy manure to irrigated agricultural land managed for organic C sequestration in soil. 3) Determine irrigation-specific runoff, intake and infiltration relationships needed for irrigation design, management, and development of an irrigation-induced erosion model.

Approach:
Objective 1a. Develop K fertilization and management guidelines for irrigated row crops with initial emphasis on K in potato production. Objective 1b. i) Determine ruminant animal consumption of alfalfa hay cut at 3-hour intervals. ii) Evaluate milk yields when cows are fed total mixed rations (TMR) containing PM- and AM-cut alfalfa hay. iii) Determine dry matter intake and weight gain by lambs offered TMRs containing PM and AM-cut alfalfa. Objective 2a1. Extend the beneficial effects of subsoil barrier-disruption tillage through several growing seasons without the need for additional subsoil tillage. Objective 2a2. Determine the effects of a new class of soil surfactants on infiltration, erosion water retention, aggregate stability and soil strength. Objective 2a3. Determine if the surface application of alum to sites receiving manure and fertilizer application can be used to sequester excess phosphorus and reduce phosphorus export from irrigated fields. Objective 2a4. Identify and conduct field tests to verify efficacy of one or more biopolymers for use in water clarification and erosion control. Objective 2a5. Compare the effectiveness of emulsion vs granular PAM for erosion control and infiltration enhancement over consecutive, multiple-year applications; and characterize soil and field properties effecting PAM efficacy. Objective 2b1. Determine how recent dairy manure applications influence the amount of dissolved organic carbon moving into the vadose zone beneath furrow irrigated calcareous soils. Objective 2b2. Assess the use of composted dairy manure and whey for improving surface soil structure. Objective 2b3. Develop soil management systems for utilizing manure and/or compost to increase infiltration and reduce surface sealing and crusting. Objective 2b4. The objective of this research will be to determine the influence of roller harrow (shallow; 5 cm) and chisel (deep; 20 cm) tillage in combination with high and low applications of dairy manure to irrigated agricultural land managed for organic C sequestration in soil. Objective 3. Determine irrigation-specific runoff, intake and infiltration relationships needed for irrigation design and management, and development of an irrigation-induced erosion model. Replacing 5368-12000-008-00D.

Last Modified: 8/29/2014
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