2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
To enhance current objectives by collecting updated analytical data on foods commonly consumed that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States. To compile analytical information in appropriate databases and release these to the public. To enhance timely updating of nutrient databases. To assay key contributors of energy and other nutrients affecting obesity and to monitor these nutrient changes in foods consumed by the U.S. population, including low-income minority populations, especially those of Hispanic, African American, and Native American heritage. To compile and release changes to the food composition data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of more than 3,000 foods and 65 components which supports the NHANES: What We Eat in America Survey.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
This project will identify and rank foods which are key contributors of energy and other dietary components for the U.S. population including minority populations. Where nutrient data are inadequate for high priority foods and nutrients, nationally representative values will be generated by analytical determination. A probability-based approach for nationwide sampling unique to various population groups will be used to select samples of foods to be analyzed. Valid chemical methods including rigorous analytical quality control will be employed. Final estimates will be disseminated to the scientific community and the U.S. population via NDL's website www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata and directly to the NHANES: What We Eat in America Survey.
This research project is to develop accurate, unbiased, and representative food composition data for about 7,500 foods and up to 140 nutrients and other dietary components (e.g., flavonoids). These data are used as the foundation of most other food composition databases and related applications in the U.S. and worldwide to monitor food and nutrient intake, to conduct human nutrition research, to label nutrient content of foods, and to develop nutrition policy. During 2008, the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) released the annual update of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR21) (www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES: What We Eat in America. Those data were generated by NDL through the analyses of foods conducted throught NDL's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) or submitted to NDL by the food industry. NDL sampled and analyzed about 100 foods through qualified contractors and via USDA specific cooperative agreements (SCAs). NDL scientists are collaborating with both the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and the National Pork Board to update beef and pork data, respectively, for many fresh cuts. NDL continued the vitamin D project to determine the composition of selected foods in the marketplace which may be fortified (e.g., fluid milk, RTE cereals) or non-fortified (salmon) sources. During FY2008 NDL and its collaborators completed the validation of the analytical methods and the characterization of the control materials for the vitamin D project. Also, the nationwide sampling of RTE cereals, vitamin D-fortified yogurts and American cheese, orange juice fortified with calcium and vitamin D, fluid milk, and selected fish was completed. Sample analysis will continue into FY2009. The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
Release of the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones in Foods. To address the question of the effect or function of other dietary compounds which might be bioactive NDL scientists updated and expanded the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones in Foods. This database (Release Two) which included values for 549 foods for three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) was updated after a search and review of the worldwide scientific literature. Also, a separate table contains values for other isoflavones found in plants (coumestrol, formononetin, and biochanin A) for 200 foods. All data were evaluated using USDA’s data quality evaluation system and rated to indicate the quality and quantity of the available data. More than 125 data sources were considered. The database was released on the USDA web site (www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata) in September, 2008. This database will permit the investigation of hypotheses concerning the effects of soy-based and other plant-based products on human health. The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
Release of the Special Interest Database providing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of selected foods. NDL scientists collaborated with scientists at affiliated USDA Children's Nutrition Research Center--Arkansas Children’s Hospital to develop and release the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) Database - 2007 for 275 foods. The Arkansas research group developed and validated the methodology to determine ORAC levels in foods; this is proposed as a way to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of a food product. Samples of 70 selected foods collected under NDL’s NFNAP program were supplied to the Arkansas research group for analysis. Data on the total phenolic compound content of the food items are also included for comparative purposes. The database has been released on NDL’s web site (www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata) for the use of investigators who are studying the relationship between the ORAC value of foods consumed and the possible biological effects. Also, these values can be compared to the specific values for flavonoids and proanthocyanidins for fruits, vegetables, and nuts previously generated by the FCMDL and also by the Arkansas laboratory. The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
Release of an expanded and updated choline Special Interest Database. NDL scientists updated the Special Interest Database for Choline previously released in 200X to add new values for existing foods and to add new foods and their respective values. This research represented a collaboration between NDL scientists and scientists in the Department of Human Nutrition at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. The Choline Database now contains 640 foods and 6 individual choline-related components. Choline assists in fat metabolism and cholesterol formation and is important for normal cell function. Betaine, a derivative of choline, is an important methyl donor. The USDA data have been used for at least nine independent studies of choline intake and its effects on the development of neural tube defects in infants as well as the role of choline and betaine in human nutrition. The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
Release of the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR21). Nutrient data for foods and other dietary components are critical to the assessment of dietary intake and the investigation of relationships between dietary intake and health status. During 2008, NDL developed and released the annual update of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR21) (www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata) and its related subset for NHANES: What We Eat in America. New analytical data for about 100 foods were generated from the chemical analysis of sample units selected in a nationwide sampling program. Several new foods were added to the SR21 database including calcium and vitamin D fortified chilled orange juice products, 28 brand-name soy milk items, 66 soy-based vegetarian items, and 12 breakfast cereals. Various frozen prepared foods (e.g., rice bowl with chicken), several rotisserie chicken and fish items, grass-fed ground bison items (raw and cooked), and USDA commodity foods (e.g., turkey taco meat) were added. Also, current data for trans fatty acid content of selected fast food items were entered to reflect changes in fatty acid composition resulting from industry reformulations of various products. The SR data for approximately 7,500 foods and up to 140 dietary components, including essential nutrients and other components which may be bioactive (e.g., choline) are used as the foundation of many other food composition database applications in the U.S. and worldwide to monitor nutrient intake, to conduct nutrition research, and to develop national nutrition policy. The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
American Indians and Alaska Natives are at high risk for several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. NDL continues to work on the American Indian/Alaska Native Foods Database which is part of the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) which is issued every two years. This database now includes about 200 subsistence (harvested, hunted, fished) foods and traditional mixed dishes. During 2008, data for samples of 6 stellar sea lion profiles (meat and organs) were added. Tribes to date that have provided food products include Shoshone Bannock, Navajo, Hopi, Apache, Plains Indians, as well as the Alaska Native population. The data were generated with support from NIH and the Indian Health Service and through collaborations with tribes, other USDA researchers, local governments, regional health departments, and universities. Data were shared with the tribes that provided the samples.
Latino immigrants are also at high risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. NDL is developing a database for nutrients in Latino foods which are important in the diets of this rapidly growing population segment. NDL efforts support the Hispanic Communities Health Study of the National Institutes of Health and the What We Eat in America, NHANES. With the partial support of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)at the National Institutes of Health, NDL sampled and analyzed about 30 foods, representing four regional study centers and respective cultural groups in New York (Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico), Miami (Cuba), Chicago (Mexico, Puerto Rico), and San Diego and Minneapolis (both Mexico). Analytical values are being migrated into the National Nutrient Databank System for SR21 to be used to assess the effect of dietary intake of Latino groups on health status.
The research which was conducted and reported above falls under National Program 107-Human Nutrition, Component 1, Composition of Foods.
|Number of Web Sites Managed||1|
|Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings||2|
Holden, J.M., Lemar, L.E., Exler, J. 2007. Vitamin D in Foods: Development of the USDA Database. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(supp): 1092S-6S.
Yates, A.A., Holden, J.M., Gebhardt, S.E., Murphy, S.P. 2007. To err may be human, but IU calculations for provitamin A carotenoids in the USDA national nutrient database are not in error. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(4):1068.
Phillips, K., Byrdwell, W.C., Exler, J., Harnly, J.M., Holden, J.M., Holick, M., Hollis, B., Horst, R., Lemar, L.E., Patterson, K.K., Tarrango-Trani, M., Wolf, W.R. 2008. Evaluation and harmonization of measurements of vitamin D in selected food materials. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 21:527-534.