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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Steven E. Naranjo
Center Director

1 - Biography
2 - Publications
3 - Meet My Staff & Collaborators
4 - Learn More About My Research

Naranjo, S.E., Liu, S.J. 2016. Long term dynamics of aphelinid parasitoids attacking Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Control 93: 56-64. (PDF

Guo, Y.Y., Tian, J.C., Shi, W.P., Dong, X.H., Romeis, J., Naranjo, S.E., Hellmich, R.L., Shelton, A.M. 2016. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize. Transgenic Res. 25:33-44. (PDF)

Naranjo, S.E., P.C. Ellsworth & G. B. Frisvold. 2015. Economics of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 60: 621-645. (PDF)

Luthi, C, F. Alvarez-Alfageme, Y. Li, S. E. Naranjo, T.J.V. Higgins & J. Romeis. 2015. The potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alphaAI-1 to control true bugs (Hemiptera). J. Appl. Entomol. 139:192-200 (PDF)

Su, H.H, J.C. Tian, S. E. Naranjo, J. Romeis, R.L. Hellmich & A.M. Shelton. 2014. Bt plants expressing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the assassin bug, Zelus renardii (Kolenati (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 139: 23-30. (PDF)

Romeis, J., M. Meissle, S. E. Naranjo, Y. Li, F. Bigler. 2014. The end of a myth - Bt maize does not harm green lacewings. Frontier Plant Sci. 5:391 (doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00391) (PDF)

Kumar, R., J.C. Tian, S.E. Naranjo & A.M. Shelton. 2014. Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107: 927-932. (PDF)

Meissle, M, S. E. Naranjo, C. Kohl, J. Riedel & J. Romeis. 2014 Does the growing of Bt maize change populations or ecological functions of non-target animals compared to the growing of conventional non-GM maize? A systematic review protocol. Environ. Evidence 3:7 (doi:10.1186/2047-2382-3-7) (PDF)

Byers, J.A., & S.E. Naranjo. 2014. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter-rate models. J. Appl. Ecol. 51: 1041-1049 (PDF)

Hagler, J.R., S.E. Naranjo, S.A. Machtley & F. Blackmer 2014. Development of a standardized protein immunomarking protocol for insect mark-capture dispersal research. J. Appl. Entomol. 138: 772-782 (PDF)

Tian, J.C., L.P. Long, X.P. Wang, S.E. Naranjo, J. Romeis, R.L. Hellmich, P. Wang & A.M. Shelton. 2014. Using resistant prey demonstrates that Bt plants producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F have no negative effects on Geocoris punctipes and Orius insidiosus. Environ. Entomol. 43: 242-251. (PDF)

Luo, S., S E. Naranjo, K. Wu. 2014. Biological control of cotton pests in China. Biol. Control 68: 6-14. (PDF)

Tian, J.C., X.P. Wang, L.P. Long, J. Romeis, S.E. Naranjo, R.L. Hellmich & A.M. Shelton. 2013. Eliminating host-mediated effects demonstrates Bt maize producing Cry1F has no adverse effects on the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Transgenic Res. 23:257-264 (PDF)

Asiimwe, P., S. E. Naranjo & P. C. Ellsworth. 2014. Effects of irrigation regime on interactions between Lygus hesperus, insecticides and predators in cotton. Environ. Entomol. 43:263-273. (PDF)

Romeis, J., [R. L. Hellmich*], M. A. McLean, [S. E. Naranjo*] & A. M. Shelton. 2013. When bad science makes good headlines: The case of Bt maize and regulatory bans. Nat. Biotechnol. 31: 386-387. [*USDA-ARS authors denied approval]

Tian, J. C., X. P. Wang, L. P. Long, J. Romeis, S. E. Naranjo, R. L. Hellmich, P. Wang, E. D. Earle & A. M. Shelton. 2013. Bt crops expressing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris. PLoS One 8(3): e60125. (PDF)

Brent, C. S., C. J. Klok & S. E. Naranjo. 2013. Effect of diapause status and gender on activity, metabolism and starvation resistance in the plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 148: 152-160. (PDF)

Asiimwe, P., S. E. Naranjo & P. C. Ellsworth. 2013. Relative influence of plant quality and natural enemies on the seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci in cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 1260-1273. (PDF)

Shelton, A. M., S. E. Naranjo, J. Romeis & R. L. Hellmich. 2012. Errors in logic and statistics plague a meta-analysis (response to Andow et al. 2012). Environ. Entomol. 41: 1047-1049. (PDF)

Tian, J. C., H. L. Collins, J. Romeis, S. E. Naranjo, R. L. Helmich & A. M. Shelton. 2012. Using field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize in a lepidopteran pest to demonstrate no adverse effects of Cry1F on one if its major predators. Transgenic Res. 21:1303-1310. (PDF)

Carrire, Y., C.Ellers-Kirk, K. Hartfield, G. Larocque, B. Degain, P. Dutilleul, T. J. Dennehy, S. E. March, D. W. Crowder, X. Li, P. C. Ellsworth, S. E. Naranjo, J. C. Palumbo, A. Fournier, L. Antilla & B. E. Tabashnik. 2012. Large-scale, spatially explicit test of the refuge strategy for delaying insecticide resistance. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 109: 775-780. (PDF)

Carrire, Y, P. B. Goodell, C. Ellers-Kirk, G. Larocque, P. Dutilleul, S. E. Naranjo & P. C. Ellsworth. 2012. Effects of local and landscape factors on population dynamics of a cotton pest PLoS One 7(6): e39862 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039862). (PDF)

Li, X..C. B. A. Degain, V. S. Harpold, P. G. Maron, R. L. Nichols, A. J. Fournier, S. E. Naranjo, J. C. Palumbo, & P. C. Ellsworth. 2012. Baseline susceptibilities of B- and Q-biotype Bemisia tabaci to anthranilic diamides in Arizona. Pest Manage. Sci. 68: 83-91. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & M. A. Stefanek. 2012. Feeding behavior of a potential insect pest, Lygus hesperus, on four new industrial crops for the arid southwestern USA. Industrial Crops Prod. 37: 358-361. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., P. C. Ellsworth & D. A. Dierig. 2011. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop. J. Econ. Entomol. 104: 1575-1583. (PDF)

Prabhaker, N, S. J. Castle, S. E. Naranjo, J. G. Morse. 2011. Compatibility of two systemic neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam, with several natural enemies of agricultural pests. J. Econ. Entomol. 104: 773-781. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 2011. Impacts of Bt transgenic cotton on integrated pest management. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 5842-5851. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. and S. J. Castle. 2010. Sequential sampling plans for estimating density of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homolodisca vitripennis, on citrus. Crop Prot. 29: 1363-1370. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. and P. C. Ellsworth. 2010. Fourteen years of Bt cotton advances IPM in Arizona. Southwestern Entomol. (PDF)

Duan, J. J., J. G. Lundgren, S. E. Naranjo and M. Marvier. 2010. Extrapolating non-target risk of Bt crops from laboratory to field. Biol. Letters 6: 74-77 (PDF)

Shelton, A. M., S. E. Naranjo, J. Romeis, R. L. Hellmich et al. 2009. Appropriate analytical methods are necessary to assess non-target effects of insecticidal proteins in GM crops through meta-analysis (response to Andow et al.). Environ. Entomol. 38: 1533-1538. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. and P. C. Ellsworth. 2009. 50 years of the Integrated Control Concept: Moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona. Pest Manage. Sci. 65:1267-1286 (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. and P. C. Ellsworth. 2009. The contribution of conservation biological control to integrated control of Bemisia tabaci in cotton. Biol. Control 51: 458-470 (PDF)

Shelton, A. M., S. E. Naranjo, J. Romeis, R. L. Hellmich et al. 2009. Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies. Transgenic. Res. 18: 317-332 (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 2009. Impact of Bt crops on non-target invertebrates and insecticide use patterns. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Sciences, Nutrition and Natural Resources 4: No 11 (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & R. G. Luttrell. 2009. Cotton Arthropod IPM. In Integrated Pest Management: Concepts, Tactics, Strategies & Case Studies, E. B. Radcliff & W. D. Hutchison (eds.). Cambridge University Press (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., J. R. Ruberson, H. C. Sharma, L. Wilson & K.M. Wu. 2008. The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant GM Cotton in IPM. P. 159-194. In Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs, J. Romeis, A. M. Shelton & G. G. Kennedy (eds.). Springer, New York (PDF)

Wolfenbarger, L.L., S. E. Naranjo, J. G. Lundgren, R. J. Bitzer and L. S. Watrud. 2008. Bt Crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 3(5): e218 (co-senior author) (PDF)

Sequeira, R.V. and S. E. Naranjo. 2008. Sampling and management of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B in Australian cotton. Crop. Prot. 27: 1262-1268. (PDF)

Castle, S.C and S. E. Naranjo. 2008. Comparison of sampling methods for determining relative densities of Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on citrus. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 226-235. (PDF)

Knutson, A. E., M. A. Muegge, L. T. Wilson and S. E. Naranjo. 2008. Evaluation of sampling methods and development of sample plans for estimating predator densities in cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 1501-1509. (PDF)

Naranjo, S.E.. 2007. Survival and movement of Bemisia tabaci crawlers on cotton. Southwest. Entomol. 32: 17-23. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 2007. Intraguild predation on Eretmocerus nr emiratus, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci by three generalist predators with implications for estimating the level and impact of parasitism. Biocontrol Science and Technology 17: 605-622. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & E. Hequet. Sticky cotton sampling. 2007. P. 148-165. In Sticky Cotton Ð Cause, Impacts, and Prevention, E. Hequet, T. Henneberry & R. L. Nichols (eds). U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Agric. Res. Serv., Tech. Bull. No. 1915 (PDF)

Richards, T. J., J. Eaves, V. Fournier, S.E. Naranjo, C.C. Chu, and T. J. Henneberry. 2006. Managing economic risk caused by insects: Bug options. Agric. Finance Rev. 66: 27-45. (PDF)

Naranjo, S.E. 2005: Long-term assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the abundance of non-target arthropod natural enemies. Environ. Entomol. 34: 1193-1210. (PDF)

Naranjo, S.E. 2005: Long-term assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the function of the natural enemy community. Environ. Entomol. 34: 1211-1223. (PDF)

Naranjo, S.E., G. Head, and G. P. Dively. 2005. Special Section Introduction: Field studies assessing arthropod non-target effects in Bt transgenic crops. Environ. Entomol. 34: 1178-1180. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & P. C. Ellsworth. 2005. Mortality dynamics and population regulation in Bemisia tabaci. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 116: 93-108. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & D. Akey. 2005. Conservation of natural enemies in cotton: Comparative selectivity of acetamiprid in the management of Bemisia tabaci. Pest Manage. Sci. 61: 555-566. (PDF)

Castle, S. J., S. E. Naranjo, J. L. Bi, F. J. Byrne & N. C. Toscazo. 2005. Phenology and demography of Homalodisca coagulata in southern California citrus and implications for management. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95: 621-634. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R & S. E. Naranjo. 2005. Use of a gut content ELISA to detect whitefly predator feeding activity after field exposure to different insecticide treatments. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 15: 321-339. (PDF)

Goolsby, J.A., P. J. DeBarro, A. A. Kirk, R. Sutherst, L. Canas, M. Ciomperlik, P. Ellsworth, J. Gould, D. Hartley, K.A Hoelmer, S. E. Naranjo, M. Rose, B. Roltsch, R. Ruiz, C. Pickett & D. Vacek. 2005. Post-release evaluation of the biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype ÒBÓ in the USA and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries. Biol. Control 32: 70-77. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 2004. Sampling arthropods. P. 1933-1945. In Encyclopedia of Entomology, J. L. Capinera (ed.). Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht (PDF)

Blackmer, J. L., S. E. Naranjo & L. H. Williams, III. 2004. Comparative study of tethered and untethered flight by Lygus hesperus and Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae). Environ. Entomol. 33: 1389-1400. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., P. C. Ellsworth & J. R. Hagler. 2004. Conservation of natural enemies in cotton: Role of insect growth regulators for management of Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Control 30: 52-72. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., L. Ca–as & P. C. Ellsworth. 2004. Mortalidad de Bemisia tabaci en un sistema de cultivos mœltiples [Mortality of Bemisia tabaci in a multiple-crop system]. Horticultura Internacional 43(Febrero): 14-21. (PDF)

Hagler, J.R. & S.E. Naranjo. 2004. A multiple ELISA system for simultaneously monitoring intercrop movement and feeding activity of mass-released predators. Int. J. Pest Manag. 50: 199-207. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. J. R. Hagler & P. C. Ellsworth. 2003. Improved conservation of natural enemies with selective management systems for Bemisia tabaci in cotton. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 13: 571-587. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., P. C. Ellsworth, C. C. Chu & T. J. Henneberry. 2002. Conservation of predatory arthropods in cotton: Role of action thresholds for Bemisia tabaci. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 682-691. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., G. D. Butler, Jr. & T. J. Henneberry. 2002. A bibliography of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). U.S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv., Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture No. 136 (PDF) (Search the Bibliography)

Naranjo, S. E., G. D. Butler, Jr. & T. J. Henneberry. 2002. Complete bibliography of Bemisia tabaci and Bemisia argentifolii. pp. 227-415. In Silverleaf whitefly: National research, action and technology transfer plan, 1997-2001; Fourth annual review of the second 5-year plan and final report for 1992-2002. USDA-ARS, June 2002. (Search the Bibliography)

Naranjo, S. E. 2001. Conservation and evaluation of natural enemies in IPM systems for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Prot. 20(Special Issue): 835-852. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & P. C. Ellsworth (eds). 2001. Challenges and Opportunities for Pest Management of Bemisia tabaci in the New Century. Crop Prot. 20(Special Issue): 707-869

Naranjo, S. E. & J. R. Hagler. 2001. Towards the quantification of predation with predator gut immunoassays: A new approach integrating functional response behavior. Biol. Control. 20: 175-189. (PDF)

Venette, R. C., S. E. Naranjo & W. D. Hutchison. 2000. Effects of low temperature and soil moisture on mortality of pink bollworm: implications for establishment in southeastern United States cotton. Environ. Entomol. 29: 1018-1026. (PDF)

Gould, J. R. & S. E. Naranjo. 1999. Distribution and sampling plans for Bemisia tabaci and Eretmocerus eremicus on cantaloupe vines. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 402-408. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & J. R. Hagler. 1998. Characterizing and estimating the impact of heteropteran predation. P. 170-197. In M. Coll & J. Ruberson (eds.), Predatory Heteroptera: Their ecology and use in biological control. Thomas Say Symposium Proceedings, Entomological Society of America. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., P. C. Ellsworth, C. C. Chu, T. J. Henneberry, D. G. Riley, T. F. Watson, and R. L. Nichols. 1998. Action thresholds for the management of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 1415-1426. (PDF)

Gerling, D. & S. E. Naranjo. 1998. The effect of insecticide treatments in cotton fields on the levels of parasitism of Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Control 12: 33-41. (PDF)

Henneberry, T. J. & S. E. Naranjo. 1998. Integrated management approaches for pink bollworm in the southwestern United States. Integrated Pest Manage. Rev. 3: 31-52. (PDF)

Hentz, M., P. C. Ellsworth, S. E. Naranjo and T. F. Watson. 1998. Development, longevity and fecundity of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus an egg-larval parasitoid of Pectinophora gossypiella. Environ. Entomol. 27: 443-449. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & W. D. Hutchison. 1997. Validation of arthropod sampling plans using a resampling approach: Software and analysis. Am. Entomol. 43(1): 48-57. (PDF) (Download Software)

Naranjo, S. E., J. W. Diehl & P. C. Ellsworth. 1997. Sampling whiteflies in cotton: validation and analysis of enumerative and binomial plans. Environ. Entomol. 26: 777-788. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R. & S. E. Naranjo. 1997. Measuring the sensitivity of an indirect predator gut content ELISA: detectability of prey remains in relation to predator species, temperature, time, and meal size. Biological Control. 9: 112-119. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R., S. E. Naranjo, M. L. Erikson, S. A. Machtley & S. F. Wright. 1997. Immunological examination of species variability in predator gut contents assays: effect of predator:prey protein ratio on immunoassay sensitivity. Biological Control 9: 120-128. (PDF)

Hentz, M., P. C. Ellsworth & S. E. Naranjo. 1997. Biology and morphology of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus as a parasitoid of Pectinophora gossypiella. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90: 631-639. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. , C. C. Chu & T. J. Henneberry. 1996. Economic injury levels for Bemisia tabaci in cotton: Impact of crop price, control costs, and efficacy of control. Crop Prot. 15: 779-788. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., H. M. Flint & T. J. Henneberry. 1996. Binomial sampling plans for estimating and classifying population density of adult Bemisia tabaci in cotton. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80: 343-353. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & R. L. Gibson. 1996. Phytophagy in predaceous Heteroptera: effects on life-history and population dynamics. P. 57-93. In R. Wiedenmann & O. Alomar (eds.), Zoophytophagous Heteroptera: Implications for life history and integrated pest management, Thomas Say Symposium Proceedings, Entomological Society of America. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 1996. Sampling Bemisia for research and pest management applications. pp. 209-224. In Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, biology, damage, control and management, D. Gerling & D. Mayer (eds.), Intercept Press, Hants, UK. (PDF)

Flint, H. M., S. E. Naranjo, J. E. Leggett & T. J. Henneberry. 1996. Cotton water stress, arthropod dynamics, and management of Bemisia tabaci. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 1288-1300. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & H. M. Flint. 1995. Spatial distribution of adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton and development and validation of fixed-precision sampling plans for estimating population density. Environ. Entomol. 24: 261-270. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E., H. M. Flint & T. J. Henneberry. 1995. Comparative analysis of selected sampling methods for adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 1666-1678. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & H. M. Flint. 1994. Spatial distribution of preimaginal Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Alyerodidae) in cotton and development of fixed-precision, sequential sampling plans. Environ. Entomol. 23: 254-266. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R. & S. E. Naranjo. 1994. A qualitative survey of two coleopteran predators of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Alyerodidae) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using a multiple prey gut content ELISA. Environ. Entomol. 23: 193-197. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R. & S. E. Naranjo. 1994. Determining the frequency of heteropteran predation on sweetpotato whitefly and pink bollworm using multiple ELISAs. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 72: 63-70. (PDF)

Hagler, J. R., S. E. Naranjo, D. Bradley-Dunlop, F. J. Enriquez and T. H. Henneberry. 1994. A monoclonal antibody to pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) egg antigen: A tool for predator gut analysis. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87: 85-90. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. 1993. Life history of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with emphasis on performance at high temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 22: 1051-1059. (PDF)

Naranjo, S. E. & J. M. Martin. 1993. Comparative development, reproduction and oviposition of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on a resistant okra-leaf cotton, and commercial upland and Pima cultivars. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1094-1103. (PDF)

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