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James J Becnel


Dr. James Becnel

Telephone: (352)374-5961
Fax: (352)374-5922

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Research Specialties | Education | Experience
Memberships | Office/Committee Assignments
Editorial Boards | Honors/Awards | Accomplishments
Invitations | Presentations | Publications

Research Specialties

Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Insect Pathology; Virology; Microsporidiology; Electron Microscopy.


Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 1976.
Zoology, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, LA, 1981.
Medical Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 1989.

Research Experience

1981 - 1985
Microbiologist, USDA, ARS, Lake Charles, LA
1985 - 1991
Microbiologist, USDA, ARS, Gainesville, FL
1991 - Pres
Lead Scientist and Research Entomologist, USDA, ARS, Gainesville, FL

Membership in Professional Societies

  • Society for Invertebrate Pathology 1981 to present
  • Society of Protozoology, 1981-present
  • Entomological Society of America, 1991 to present
  • American Mosquito Control Association, 1981 to present
  • Florida Mosquito Control Association, 1995 to present

Scientific Office and Committee Assignments

  • Society for Invertebrate Pathology: Elected Chair, Division on Microsporidia, 1988 90; 2000-02, Vice-Chair, 1986-88; 1998-2000; Member, Nominating Committee, 1991; Member, Membership Committee, 1992; Chair, Membership Committee, 1994 to present; Nominated for Secretary of the Society, 1994.
  • Selected by the membership to serve as Chairman for the Southern Regional Project S 301 "Development, Evaluation and Safety of Entomopathogens for Control of Arthropod Pests" 2000-2002. Member since 1986.
  • Selected by the Area Director to serve on the CMAVE Frontiers of Science Seminar Series Committee (2003-2004).
  • Invited to serve on a search committee by Dr. Marjorie Hoy, University of Florida to select an Insect Physiologist in the Department of Entomology and Nematology (2003-2004).
  • Selected by Dr. Kevin Hackett (ARS, NPL, Biological Control) to Chair a steering committee and organize an ARS National Biocontrol Workshop to be held Feb1-3, 2004.
  • Assistant Professor on the graduate faculty, University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, Florida. Have Chaired 2 PhD student programs and served on numerous PhD and MS student's committees.

Editorial Boards

  • Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Associate Editor, 2004 to present, Editorial Board, 1996-2003.
  • Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, Editorial Board, 1998-present.

Honors and Awards

  • Awarded the Univ. of Florida, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, Best Ph.D. dissertation, 1989.
  • Grant awarded (together with Dr. Christopher Geden, ARS, Gainesville, Fl) on "Biology and Management of Parasitoids" , CSRS, 1997-2000, $120, 067.
  • Grant awarded on "Biology of Helicosporidium: a Unique and Unclassified Group of Invertebrate Pathogens". NSF, 2002-2005. $290,600. Dr. Drion Boucias, University of Florida, is the Principal Investigator for this grant.
  • Florida Entomological Society 2004 Achievement Award for Research "For innovative research on the biological control of mosquitoes".
  • Selected as the Society for Invertebrate Pathology's Founders' Lecturer for 2005, presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, August, 2005, Anchorage, Alaska.

Significant Research Accomplishments

  • Discovered and described a new mosquito pathogenic baculovirus (CuniNPV) of Culex mosquitoes that vector West Nile virus and other types of encephalitis. Patent awarded February 18, 2003 (US 6,521,454) "Novel Baculovirus, Insecticidal Compositions, and Methods for Control of Invertebrates".
  • Discovered that transmission of CuniNPV is mediated by divalent cations: magnesium is essential, whereas the presence of calcium inhibits the activity of magnesium to mediate transmission.
  • Initiated and participated in a project that successfully sequenced the entire genome of CuniNPV providing crucial genetic information and documenting that CuniNPV is an unusual member of the family Baculoviridae.
  • Discovered a new species of Helicosporidium from black flies and participated in the biological, morphological and molecular characterization revealing that this Helicosporidium sp. is the first described algal invertebrate pathogen.
  • Described the life cycle and created a new genus for the unique microsporidium Edhazardia aedis (Kudo) Becnel, Sprague and Fukuda, 1989, a pathogen of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
  • Initiated and led the successful campaign to develop and release the biological control agent Edhazardia aedis into the environment.
  • Formally described and named a new microsporidian parasite, Nosema muscidifuracis Becnel and Geden, 1994, from the Muscidifurax raptor, a pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies.
  • Described one new family, four new genera and 15 new species of microsporidia from mosquitoes, hymenoptera, beetles, locusts and fleas.

Significant Invitations Last 5 Years

  • "Transmission of Viruses to Mosquitoes Mediated by Divalent Cations" as part of a symposium on "Transmission of Invertebrate Pathogens" at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Anchorage, AK, August 2005.
  • "Prospects of CuniNPV for Mosquito Control" as part of the symposium on "Enhancing Mosquito Control without Pesticides" at the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association meeting, Vancouver, BC, April 2005.
  • "Current Status of Mosquito Baculoviruses" at the 9th Symposium of Biological Control (SICONBIOL), Recife, May 15-19, 2005.
  • "Mosquito-Microsporidia Relationships: From the Very Simple to the Very Complex" at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Emergent Pathogens in the 21st Century: First United Workshop on Microsporidia from Invertebrate and Vertebrate Hosts". Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, July 12-15, 2004.
  • "Contributions of Invertebrate Pathology to Vector Control" at the VIII International Colloquium of Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control and VI International Conference on Bacillus thuringienses at Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, August 18-23, 2002.
  • "Characteristics of the Microsporidia; Reasons to ponder that Microsporidia are highly evolved Fungi" at the VIII International Colloquium of Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control and VI International Conference on Bacillus thuringienses at Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, August 18-23, 2002.
  • "Host Barriers to Infection by Insect Pathogens" held at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, November 17-20, 2002 and presented an invited talk titled "Host Invasion by Microsporidia: A Unique Mechanism for Evading Host Defenses".
  • "Biosystems and Bioterrorism: Can Arthropods Be Used as Agents of Destruction" held at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, November 17-20, 2002 and presented an invited talk titled "Vectors of Human and Animal Diseases: Curse of the West Nile Virus".
  • Special invitation to teach a course on the theoretical and practical aspects of entomopathogenic microsporidia as biological control agents. This was part of an International Training Course on Insect Pathology "Curso Internacional de Patologia de Insectos" from 7 to 12 October, 2002 held at the "Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Victoria, Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
  • "Biological Control Of Mosquitoes" presented at the Gordon Conference, "New Frontiers in chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense", Ventura, CA, March, 2002.
  • "A Newly-Discovered Baculovirus from the Mosquitoes Culex nigripalpus and Culex quinquefasciatus Requires Magnesium for Transmission" presented at The Gordon Research Conference, "Magnesium in Biochemical Processes and Medicine", Ventura, CA, February 2002.
  • "Microsporidia, Use and Application in Biological Control of Insects" presented at a special symposium at the XXXIII Congreso Nacional de Microbiología at the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, April 7th-10th, 2002.
  • "A new baculovirus from Culex nigripalpus presented at the Mid Atlantic Mosquito Control Association annual meeting, Savannah, GA, 2001.
  • "Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Aquatic Habitats in the United States" presented at an international symposium "Manipulating Microbes for Managing North American Pests: Hands across the Border" held in conjunction with the 2000 joint annual meeting of ESA and ESC, Montreal, December 2000.


I have made more than 75 presentations at scientific meetings and workshops. A list will be provided upon request.


Becnel, J. J. (1981). Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis-Insecticide Combinations on the Mortality of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). McNeese State University. 24 pp. (Thesis)

Hazard, E. I., Fukuda, T. & Becnel, J. J. (1984). Life cycle of Culicosporella lunata (Hazard & Savage, 1970) Weiser, 1977 (Microspora) as revealed in the light microscope with a description of the genus and species. J. Protozool. 31: 385 391.

Hazard, E. I., Fukuda, T. & Becnel, J. J. (1985). Gametogenesis and plasmogamy in certain species of Microspora. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 46: 63 69.

Brooks, W. M., Hazard, E. I. & Becnel, J. J. (1985). Two new species of Nosema (Microsporida: Nosematidae) from the Mexican bean beetle Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J. Protozool. 32: 525 535.

Becnel, J. J., Hazard, E. I. & Fukuda, T. (1986). Fine structure and development of Pilosporella chapmani (Microspora: Thelohaniidae) in the mosquito Aedes triseriatus (Say). J. Protozool. 33: 60 66.

Becnel, J. J. (1986). Microsporidian sexuality in culicine mosquitoes. Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Invertebrate Pathology, Samson, R. A., Vlak, J. M., and Peters, D. [Eds.]. Foundation IVth Int. Colloq. on Invertebr. Pathol., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 331 334.(Proceedings)

Becnel, J. J., Hazard, E. I., Fukuda, T. & Sprague, V. (1987). Life cycle of Culicospora magna (Kudo, 1920) (Microsporida: Culicosporidae) in Culex restuans (Theobald) with special reference to sexuality. J. Protozool. 34: 313 322.

Brooks, W. M., Becnel, J. J. & Kennedy, G. G. (1988). Establishment of Endoreticulatus n. g. for Pleistiphora fidelis (Hostounsky & Weiser, 1975) (Microsporida: Pleistophoridae) based on the ultrastructure of a Microsporidium in the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). J. Protozool. 35: 481 488.

Becnel, J. J., Sprague, V., Fukuda, T. & Hazard, E. I. (1989). Development of Edhazardia aedis (Kudo, 1930) n. g., n. comb. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Protozool., 36: 119 130.

Becnel, J. J. & Fukuda, T. (1989). Natural occurrence of a mosquito iridescent virus in Aedes sollicitans. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 5: 610 611.

Becnel, J. J. (1989) Microsporidian Parasites of Mosquitoes; Ultrastructure, Life Cycles and Relationships. University of Florida. 110 pp.(Dissertation)

Becnel, J. J. (1990). Edhazardia aedis (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) as a biocontrol agent of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. Vth Int. Colloq. on Invertebr. Pathol. and Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia, 56-60.(Proceedings)

Becnel, J. J. & Sweeney, A. W. (1990). Amblyospora trinus n. sp. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) in the Australian mosquito Culex halifaxi (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Protozool., 37: 584-592.

Becnel, J. J. & Dunkle, S. W. (1990). Evolution of micropyles in dragonfly eggs (Aniosoptera). Odonatologica, 19(3): 235-241.

Beard, C. B., Butler, J. F. & Becnel, J. J. (1990). Nolleria pulicis n. gen., n. sp. (Microsporida: Chytridiopsidae), a microsporidian parasite of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Protozool. 37: 90-99.

Becnel, J. J. & Fukuda, T. (1991). Ultrastructure of Culicosporella lunata (Microsporida: Culicosporellidae fam. n.) in the mosquito Culex pilosus (Diptera: Culicidae) with new information on the developmental cycle. Europ. J. Protist., 26, 319-329.

Darsie, R. F., Becnel, J. J., Hazard, E. I. & Garcia, J. J. (1991) A report on the distribution and bionomics of some Argentine mosquito larvae. Mosq. Systematics 23: 50-52.

Sweeney, A. W. & Becnel, J. J. (1991). Potential of Microsporidia for Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Parasitology Today. 7(8): 217-220.

Nasci, R. S., Tang, K. H., Becnel, J.J. & Fukuda, T. (1992). Effect of per os Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae) infection on Aedes aegypti mortality and body size. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 8: 131-136.

Becnel, J. J. (1992). Horizontal transmission and subsequent development of Amblyospora californica (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) in the intermediate and definitive hosts. Dis. Aquat. Org. 13: 17-28.

Becnel, J. J. (1992) Safety of Edhazardia aedis (Microspora: Amblyosporidae) for nontarget aquatic organisms. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 8: 256-260.

Becnel, J. J. (1992) Prospects of Microsporidia and Fungi for the control of Container-inhabiting mosquitoes, J. Fla. Mosq. Control Assoc. 63: 74-75. J. Fla. Mosq. Control Assoc. 63: 74-75.

Becnel, J. J. & Undeen, A. H. (1992). Influence of temperature on developmental parameters of the parasite/host system of Edhazardia aedis (Microsporrida: Amblyosporidae) and Aedes aegypti. J. Inverter. Pathol. 60: 299-303.

Undeen, A. H. & Becnel, J. J. (1992). Longevity and germination of Edhazardia aedis (Microspora: Amblyosporidae). Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 2: 247-256.

Sprague, V. S., Becnel, J. J. and Hazard, E. I. (1992). Taxonomy of Phylum Microspora. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 18: 285-395.

Becnel, J. J. (1993). Microsporidia in Mosquitoes: Host-parasite relationships. Progress in Protozoology, Hausmann, K. and Hulsmann, N. [Eds.]. Proceedings of the IX International Congress of Protozoology, Berlin, 1993, 96-97. (Proceedings)

Becnel, J. J. & Johnson, M. A. (1993). Mosquito host range and specificity of Edhazardia aedis (Microspora: Culicosporidae). J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 9: 269-273.

Undeen, A. H., Johnson, M. A. and Becnel, J. J. (1993) The Effects of Temperature on the Survival of Edhazardia aedis (Microspora: Amblyosporidae), a Pathogen of Aedes aegypti. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 61: 303-307.

Becnel, J. J. (1993). Effects of Microsporidia on Mosquito Vectors in Host Regulated Developmental Mechanisms in Vector Arthropods (D. Borovsky and A. Spielman) pp. 240-245, U. of Florida, Vero Beach, FL.

Becnel, J. (1994). Life cycles and host-parasite relationships of Microsporidia in culicine mosquitoes. Folia Parasitologica 41: 91-96.

Becnel, J. J. & Geden, C. J. (1994). Description of a new species of microsporidia from Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies. J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 41: 236-243.

Garcia, J. J., Fukuda, T. & Becnel, J. J. (1994). Seasonality, prevalence and pathogenicity of the gregarine Ascogregarina taiwanensis ( Apicomplexa, Lecudinidae) in culicids from Florida. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 10: 413-418.

Undeen, A. H. & Becnel, J. J. (1994). A device for monitoring populations of larval mosquitoes in container habitats. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 10: 101-103.

García, J. J. & J. J. Becnel (1994). Eight new species of microsporidia (Microspora) from Argentine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 64: 243-252.

Miller, S. G. , Campbell, B. C., Becnel, J. & Ehrman, L. (1995). Bacterial entomopathogens from the Drosophila paulistorum semispecies complex. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 65: 125-131.

Becnel, J. J., García, J. J., and Johnson, M. A. (1995). Edhazardia aedis (Microspora: Culicosporidae) Effects on the reproductive capacity of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 32: 549-553.

Geden, C. J., Long, S. J., Rutz, D. A. & Becnel, J. J. (1995) Nosema disease of the muscoid fly parasitoid of Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): prevalence, patterns of transmission, and treatment. Biological Control 5: 607-614.

Briano, J., Patterson, R. Becnel, J.J. & Cordo, H. (1996). The black imported fire ant Solenopsis richteri, infected with Thelohania solenopsae: Intercolonial prevalence of infection and evidence for transovarial transmission. J. Invertebr. Pathol.67, 178-179.

Lange, E. C., Becnel, J. J., Razafindratiana, E., Przybyszewski, J., & Razafindrafara, H. (1996). Johenrea locustae n.g., n.sp. (Microspora: Glugeidae): A pathogen of migratory locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae) from Madagascar. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 68, 28-40.

Becnel, J. J., García, J. J., and Johnson, M. A. (1996). The effects of three larvicides on the production of Aedes albopictus based on pupal exuviae removal. J. Am. Mosq. Control Ass. 12, 499-502.

Moser, B., Becnel, J. J. Undeen, A. H. and Patterson, R. (1996). Fatty acid analysis of Microsporidia. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 68, 146-151.

Becnel, J. J. (1996).Biological Control of Aedes aegypti with the microsporidium Edhazardia aedis., Proceedings, 5th International Symposium of Biological Control, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, 1996, 226-231. (Proceedings)

Becnel, J. J. (1997). Complementary Techniques: Preparations of Entomopathogens and Diseased Specimens for more Detailed Study using Microscopy. In: "Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology" (L. A. Lacey, ed). Academic Press. (Book Chapter)

Baker, M. D.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Becnel, J. J., and Maddox, J. V. (1997) Phylogenetic position of Amblyospora Hazard & Oldacre (Microspora : Amblyosporidae) based on small subunit Rrna data and its implication for the evolution of the Microsporidia. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44, 220-225.

Johnson, M. A. and Becnel, J.J and Undeen, A. H. (1997). A new sporulation sequence in Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae), a parasite of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 70, 69-75.

Baker, M. D.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Becnel, J. J., and Andreadis, T. G. (1998). Phylogeny of Amblyospora (Microsporida : Amblyosporidae) and Related Genera Based on Small Subunit Ribosomal Dna Data: a Possible Example of Host Parasite Cospeciation. J. Invertebr.Patho. 71(3):199-206

Sprague, V. and Becnel, J. J. (1998). Note on the name-author-date combination for the taxon "Microsporidies" Balbiani, 1882, when ranked as a phylum. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 71, 91-94.

Williams, D. F., Knue, G. J. and J. J. Becnel. (1998). Discovery of Thelohania solenopsae from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in the United States. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 71, 175-176.

Moser, B., Becnel, J. J., Maruniak, J. and Patterson, R. (1998). Analysis of the ribosomal DNA sequences of the microsporidia Thelohania and Vairimorpha of fire ants. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 72, 154-159.

Becnel, J. J. and Andreadis, T. G. (1998) Amblyospora salinaria n. sp. (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae): Parasite of Culex salinarius (Diptera: Culicidae), its Life Cycle Stages in an Intermediate Host and Establishment as a New Species J. Invertebr. Pathol. 71, 258-262.

Micelli, V., García, J. J. and J. J. Becnel. (1998) Horizontal transmission of Amblyospora dolosi (Microspora: Amblyosporidae) to the copepod Metacyclops mendocinus (Wierzejski, 1892). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 72, 330-335.

Becnel, J. J. (1998) Development of viral pathogens for control of culicidae. Proceeding of the 6th International Symposium of Biological Control, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 1998, 145-150. (Proceedings).

Becnel, J. J. and Johnson, M. A. (1998). Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-Target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae). J. Nematol. 30, 411-414.

Becnel, J. J. and Andreadis, T. G. (1999). Microsporidia in Insects . pp. 447-501. In "The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis" (Murray Wittner , Eds), American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC.

Sprague, V. and Becnel, J. J. (1999). Glossary. pp. 531-539. In "The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis" (Murray Wittner, Eds), ), American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC.

Sprague, Victor and Becnel, James J. (1999). Appendix: Checklist of Available Generic Names for Miscrosporidia with Type Species and Type Hosts. pp. 517-530. In "The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis" (Murray Wittner, Eds), American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC.

Adler, P. H., Becnel, J. J., and Moser, B. A. (2000). Molecular Characterization and Taxonomy of a New Species of Caudosporidae (Microspora) from Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), with Host-Derived Relationships of the North American Caudosporids. J. Invertebrate Pathology. 75, 133-143.

Moser, B. A., Becnel, J. J., and Williams, D. F. (2000). Morphological and Molecular Characterization of the Thelohania solenopsae Complex (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae). J. Invertebrate Pathology. 75, 174-177.

Solter, Leellen F. and Becnel, James J. (2000). Entomopathogenic Microsporidia. pp. 231-254. In "Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology, Application and evaluation of pathogens for control on insects and other invertebrate pests." (Lawrence A. Lacey and Harry K. Kaya, Eds), Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Micieli, M. V., Garcia, J. J., and Becnel, J. J. (2000). Horizontal transmission of Amblyospora albifasciati Garcia and Becnel, 1994 (Microsporidia : Amblyosporidae), to a copepod intermediate host and the neotropical mosquito, Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart, 1837). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 75, 76-83.

Becnel, J. J. and Johnson, M. A. (2000). Impact of Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia : Culicosporidae) on a seminatural population of Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae). Biological Control (Biol. Control) . 18, 39-48.

Micieli , M. V., Garcia, J. J. and Becnel, J. J. (2000). Life Cycle and Description of Amblyospora camposi n. sp. (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae) in the Mosquito Culex renatoi (Diptera: Culicidae) and the Copepod Paracyclops fimbriatus fimbriatus (COPEPODA, CYCLOPIDAE). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 47: 575-580.

Becnel, J. J., White, S. E., Moser, B. A., Fukuda, T., Rotstein, M. J., Undeen, A. H. and Cockburn, A. (2001). Epizootiology and transmission of a newly discovered baculovirus from the mosquitoes Culex nigripalpus and Culex quinquefasciatus. J Gen Virol ; 82: 275-282.

Afonso CL, Tulman ER, Lu Z, Balinsky CA, Moser BA, Becnel JJ, Rock DL, Kutish GF. (2001). Genome Sequence of a Baculovirus Pathogenic for Culex nigripalpus. J Virol. 75(22):11157-65.

Moser, B. A., Becnel, J. J., White, S. E., Afonso, C., Kutish, G., Shanker S. and Almira, E. (2001). Morphological and molecular evidence that Culex nigripalpus baculovirus is an unusual member of the family Baculoviridae. J Gen Virol; 82: 283-297.

Reyes-Villanueva, F., Becnel, J. J. and Butler, J. F. (2001). Morphological Traits for Distinguishing Extracellular Gamonts of Ascogregarina culicis and Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 77, 227-229.

Boucias, D., Becnel, J. J., White, S. A. and Bbott, M. (2001). In Vivo and In Vitro Development of the Protist Helicosporidium sp. J. Eukaryotic Microbiology, 48, 460-470.

Tartar, A., Boucias, D., Adams, B. and Becnel, J. J. (2002). Phylogenetic analysis identifies the invertebrate pathogen Helicosporidium sp. as a green algae (Chlorophyta). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 52: 273-279.

Becnel, J. J. (2002). The Chloriridovirus. In: "The Springer Index of Viruses." (C. A. Tidona & G. Darai, Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.

Becnel, J. J., Jeyaprakash, A. Hoy, M. A. and Shapiro, (2002). A. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Microsporidian Species from the Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari, Phytoseiidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 79: 163-172.

Oi, D. H., Becnel, J. J. and Williams, D. F. (2002). Intra-colony Transmission and the Discovery of a New Spore Type for Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) in Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 78: 128-134.

Ferreira, M. A., Geden, C. J., Boohene, C.K., Becnel, J.J. and Angelo, P. P. (2002). Microsporidiosis of Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 97: 527-530.

Pereira, R. M., Williams, D. F., Becnel, J. J. and Oi, D. H. (2002). Yellow-head disease caused by a newly discovered Mattesia sp. in populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 81: 45-48.

Boohne, C. K., Geden, C. J. and Becnel, James J. (2003). Development of microsporidia-infected Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different temperatures. Biological Control. 26: 1-7.

Agnew, P., Becnel, J. J., Ebert, D. and Michalakis, Y. (2003). Symbiosis of Microsporidia and Insects in " INSECT SYMBIOSIS" (Kostas Bourtzis, Ed), CRC Press LLC, Florida, USA.

Andreadis, T. G., Becnel, J. J. and White, S. E. (2003). Infectivity and Pathogenicity of a Novel Baculovirus, CuniNPV from Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) for Fourteen Species and Four Genera of Mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol. 40:512-517.

Becnel, J. J., White, S. and Shapiro, A. M. (2003). Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV) infections in adult mosquitoes and possible mechanisms for dispersal. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 83: 181-183.

Shapiro, A. M., Becnel, J. J., Oi, D. H. and Williams, D. W. (2003). Ultrastructural characterization and further transmission studies of Thelohania solenopsae From Solenopsis invicta pupae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 83: 177-180.

Lacey, L. A. and Becnel, J. J. (2004) Microbial Control of Medically Important Insects in "The Encyclopedia of Entomology" John Capinera (Ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Reyes-Villanueva, F., Becnel, J. J. and Butler, J. F. (2003). Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Larvae to Ascogregarina culicis and Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) from Florida J. Invertebr. Pathol. 84(1): 47-53.

Solter, L.F. and Becnel, J.J. (2003). Environmental Safety of microsporidia. In "Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment" [Hokkanen, H.M.T. and Hajek, A.E., Eds.] Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Micieli, M. V., Garcia, J. J., and Becnel, J. J. (2003). Life cycle and epizootiology of Amblyospora ferocis (Microspora: Amblyosporidae) in the mosquito Psorophora ferox (Diptera, Culicidae). Folia Parasitologica 50: 171-175.

Tartar, A., Boucias, D., Becnel, J. J. and Adams, B. (2003). Comparison of plastid 16S rDNA genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53: 1719-23.

Boohne, C. K., Geden, C. J. and Becnel, James J. (2003). Evaluation of remediation methods for Nosema disease in Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Environmental Entomology 32: 1146-1153.

M. M. Hay-Roe; A. M. Shapiro; J. J. Becnel; and D. G. Boucias. A Newly Discovered Baculovirus Induces Reflex Bleeding in the Butterfly Heliconius himera (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 84: 59-62.

Galbreath, Johanna G. M., Smith, Judith E., Terry, Rebecca S., Becnel, James J., and Dunn, Alison M. Ecological implications of the invasion success of Fibrillanosema crangonyctidae, n. sp., n. g.: a novel vertically transmitted microsporidian parasite from the invasive amphipod host Crangonix pseudogracilis. Intl. J. Parasitol. 34, 235-244, 2004.

Vossbrinck, C. R., Andreadis, T. G. and Vavra, J. and Becnel J. J. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Mosquito Parasitic Microsporidia (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 51, 88-95, 2004.

Araujo-Coutinho, C. I. P. C., Nascimento, E. S., Figueiro, R., and Becnel, J. J. Seasonality and prevalence rates of microsporidia in Simulium pertinax (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae in the region of Serra dos Oraos, Rio de Janeiro. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 85, 188-191, 2004.

Shapiro, A. M., Becnel, J. J., White, S. E. A nucleopolyhedrovirus from Uranotaenia sapphirina (Diptera: Culicidae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 86, 96-103, 2004.

Becnel, J. J., White, S. E., Shapiro, A. M. Review of microsporidia-mosquito relationships: from the simple to the complex. Folia Parasitologica 52: 41-50, 2005.

Shapiro, A., Green, T., Rao, S., White, S., Carner, G., Mertens, P. C., Becnel, J. J. 2005 Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Cypovirus (Reoviridae) from the Mosquito Uranotaenia sapphirina (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Virology, 79: 9430-9438.

Blaeske-Lietze, V. U., Shapiro, A. M., Denton, J. S. Botts, M., Becnel, J.J. and D. G. Boucias. 2006. Development of the Insect Pathogenic Alga Helicosporidium. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 53 (3), 165-176.

Perera, O.P., Valles, S., Green, T.B., White, S., Strong, C., and Becnel, J.J. 2006. Molecular Analysis of an Occlusion Body Protein from Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 91(1):35-42.

Green, T. B., Shapiro, A., White, S., Rao, S., Mertens, P. P. C., & Carner, G. et al. (2006). Molecular and biological characterization of a cypovirus from the mosquito Culex restuans. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 91(1), 27-34.

Becnel, J. J., and T. G. Floore. 2007. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association: Introduction. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23, (2 SUPPL.): 1-2.

Becnel, J. J. and S. E. White. Mosquito Pathogenic Viruses - the Last 20 Years. 2007. Bull Am Mosq Control Assoc. 36-49.

Delhon G, Lu Z, Afonso CL, Tulman ER, Becnel JJ, Moser BA, Kutish GF, Rock DL. 2006. Genome of Invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (Mosquito Iridescent Virus). J. Virol. 80:8439-8449.

Green, T. B., White, S. E., Rao, R., Mertens, P. P. C., Adler, P. H. and Becnel. J. J. 2006. Biological and Molecular Studies of a Cypovirus from the Blackfly Simulium ubiquitum. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 95(1), 26-32.

Becnel, J. J. (2006). Prospects for the mosquito baculovirus CuniNPV as a tool for mosquito control. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 22(3), 523-526.

Becnel, J. J. (2006). Transmission of viruses to mosquito larvae mediated by divalent cations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 92(3), 141-145.

Becnel, J. J. (2006). Expanding frontiers for microsporidia: A tribute to Professor Elizabeth U. Canning. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 92(3), 116-124.

White, S. E. Tipping, P. W. and J. J. Becnel. 2007. First Isolation of a Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) from a biological control agent Crytobagus salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control 40: 243-245.

Becnel, J. J. (2007). Current status of deltabaculoviruses, cypoviruses and chloriridoviruses pathogenic for mosquitoes. Virologica Sinica, 22(2), 117-127.

Micieli, M. V., Marti, G. A., Garci?a, J. J., Tranchida, M. C., & Becnel, J. J. (2007). Epizootiological studies of Amblyospora camposi (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae) in Culex renatoi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Paracyclops fimbriatus fimbriatus (copepoda: Cyclopidae) in a bromeliad habitat. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 94(1), 31-37.

Nascimento, E. S., R. Figueiro?, J. J. Becnel, and C. J. P. C. Arau?jo-Coutinho. 2007. Influence of temperature on microsporidia infections in a natural population of Simulium pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera; Simuliidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology 67, (3): 519-526.

Pelizza, S. A., C. C. Lo?pez Lastra, J. J. Becnel, V. Bisaro, and J. J. Garci?a. 2007. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting Leptolegnia chapmanii infection in Aedes aegypti. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23, (2): 177-181.

Pelizza, S. A., C. C. Lo?pez Lastra, J. J. Becnel, V. Bisaro, and J. J. Garci?a. 2007. Effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the infection of Leptolegnia chapmanii Seymour (Peronosporomycetes) in mosquito larvae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 96, (2): 133-137.

Perera, O., Green, T. B., Stevens Jr., S. M., White, S., & Becnel, J. J. (2007). Proteins associated with Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus occluded virions. Journal of Virology, 81(9), 4585-4590.

Pridgeon, J. W., Meepagala, K. M., Becnel, J. J., Clark, G. G., Pereira, R. M., & Linthicum, K. J. (2007). Structure-activity relationships of 33 piperidines as toxicants against female adults of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 44(2), 263-269.

Barnard, D. R., R. -D Xue, M. A. Rotstein, and J. J. Becnel. 2007. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes egypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 44, (6): 1040-1046.

Vavra, J. and Becnel, J. J. 2007. Vavraia culicis (Weiser, 1947) Weiser, 1977 revisited: cytological characterisation of a Vavraia culicis-like microsporidium isolated from mosquitoes in Florida and the establishment of Vavraia culicis floridensis subsp. n. Folia Parasitologica: 259-271.